Goji berry

Wolfberry
Lycium barbarum fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Euasterids I
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Lycium
Species
  • Lycium barbarum L.
  • Lycium chinense Mill.
Synonyms
  • Lycium halimifolium Mill. (syn. for L. barbarum)
  • Lycium ovatum Loisel. (syn. for L. chinense Mill. var. chinense)
  • Lycium turbinatum Veill. or Loisel. (syn. for L. barbarum)
  • Lycium vulgare Dunal (syn. for L. barbarum)

Wolfberry, commercially called goji berry, is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species: Lycium barbarum (Chinese: 寧夏枸杞; pinyin: Níngxià gǒuqǐ) and L. chinense (Chinese: 枸杞; pinyin: gǒuqǐ), two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (which also includes the potato, tomato, eggplant, deadly nightshade, chili pepper, and tobacco). It is native to southeastern Europe and Asia.

It is also known as Chinese wolfberry, mede berry, barbary matrimony vine, bocksdorn, Duke of Argyll’s tea tree, Murali (in India), red medlar, or matrimony vine. Unrelated to the plant’s geographic origin, the names Tibetan goji and Himalayan goji are in common use in the health food market for products from this plant.

Description

Wolfberry species are deciduous woody perennial plants, growing 1–3 m high. L. chinense is grown in the south of China and tends to be somewhat shorter, while L. barbarum is grown in the north, primarily in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and tends to be somewhat taller.

Lycium barbarum illustration from Flora von Deutschland, by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany.

Leaves and flower

Wolfberry leaves and flower

Wolfberry leaves form on the shoot either in an alternating arrangement or in bundles of up to three, each having a shape that is either lanceolate (shaped like a spearhead longer than it is wide) or ovate (egg-like). Leaf dimensions are 7-cm wide by 3.5-cm broad with blunted or round tips.

The flowers grow in groups of one to three in the leaf axils. The calyx (eventually ruptured by the growing berry) consists of bell-shaped or tubular sepals forming short, triangular lobes. The corolla are lavender or light purple, 9–14 mm wide with five or six lobes shorter than the tube. The stamens are structured with filaments longer than the anthers. The anthers are longitudinally dehiscent.

In the northern hemisphere, flowering occurs from June through September and berry maturation from August to October, depending on the latitude, altitude, and climate.

Fruit

These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1–2-cm deep. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing anywhere between 10–60 tiny yellow seeds that are compressed with a curved embryo. The berries ripen from July to October in the northern hemisphere.

Etymology

“Wolfberry” is the most commonly used English name[citation needed], while gǒuqǐ (枸杞) is the Chinese name for the berry producing plant. In Chinese, the berries themselves are called gǒuqǐzi (枸杞子), with zi meaning “seed” or specifically “berry”. Other common names are “the Duke of Argyll’s Tea Tree”

and “matrimony vine”.

Rarely, wolfberry is also known in pharmacological references as Lycii fructus, meaning “Lycium fruit” in Latin.

The origin of the common name “wolfberry” is unknown, perhaps resulting from confusion over the genus name, which resembles “lycos”, the Greek word for wolf. In the English-speaking world, “goji berry” has been used since the early 21st century as a synonym for “wolfberry”. The word “goji” is an approximation of the pronunciation of gǒuqǐ in several Chinese dialects, including Hokkien and Shanghainese.

Lycium, the genus name, is derived from the ancient southern Anatolian region of Lycia (Λυκία).

L. chinense was first described by the Scottish botanist Philip Miller in the eighth edition of his The Gardener’s Dictionary, published in 1768.

In Japan the plant is known as kuko (クコ) and the fruits are called kuko no mi (クコ ) or kuko no kajitsu (クコ ); in Korea the berries are known as gugija (hangul: ; hanja: 枸杞子); in Vietnam the fruit is called “kỷ tử” (杞子), “cẩu kỷ” (枸杞), “cẩu kỷ tử”(枸杞子) but the plant and its leaves are known more popularly as “củ khởi”; and in Thailand the plant is called găo gèe (เก๋ากี้). In Tibetan the plant is called dretsherma (Tibetwolfberryspelling.png), with dre meaning “ghost” and tsherma meaning “thorn”; and the name of the fruit is dretshermǟ dräwu (Wolfberrytibetanname.png), with dräwu meaning “fruit”.

 Significance

Since the early 21st century there has been rapidly growing attention for wolfberries for their nutrient value and antioxidant content. They have been termed a superfruit, which has led to a profusion of consumer products.

Cultivation

 China

The majority of commercially produced wolfberries come from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of north-central China and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of western China, where they are grown on plantations. In Zhongning County, Ningxia, wolfberry plantations typically range between 100 and 1000 acres (or 500–6000 mu) in area. As of 2005, over 10 million mu have been planted with wolfberries in Ningxia .

Cultivated along the fertile aggradational floodplains of the Yellow River for more than 600 years, Ningxia wolfberries have earned a reputation throughout Asia for premium quality sometimes described commercially as “red diamonds”.Government releases of annual wolfberry production, premium fruit grades, and export are based on yields from Ningxia, the region recognized with

  • The largest annual harvest in China, accounting for 42% (13 million kg, 2001) of the nation’s total yield of wolfberries, estimated at approximately 33 million kg (72 million lb) in 2001.
  • Formation of an industrial association of growers, processors, marketers, and scholars of wolfberry cultivation to promote the berry’s commercial and export potential.
  • The nation’s only source of therapeutic grade (“superior-grade”) wolfberries used by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.

In addition, commercial volumes of wolfberries grow in the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei. When ripe, the oblong, red berries are tender and must be picked carefully or shaken from the vine into trays to avoid spoiling. The fruits are preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.

Wolfberries are celebrated each August in Ningxia with an annual festival coinciding with the berry harvest.Originally held in Ningxia’s capital, Yinchuan, the festival has been based since 2000 in Zhongning County, an important center of wolfberry cultivation for the region. As Ningxia’s borders merge with three deserts, wolfberries are also planted to control erosion and reclaim irrigable soils from desertification.

China, the main supplier of wolfberry products in the world, had total exports generating US$120 million in 2004. This production derived from 82,000 hectares farmed nationwide, yielding 95,000 tons of wolfberries.[8]

 Pesticide and fungicide use

Organochlorine pesticides are conventionally used in commercial wolfberry cultivation to mitigate destruction of the delicate berries by insects. Since the early 21st century, high levels of insecticide residues (including fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and acetamiprid) and fungicide residues (such as triadimenol and isoprothiolane), have been detected by the United States Food and Drug Administration in some imported wolfberries and wolfberry products of Chinese origin, leading to the seizure of these products.

China’s Green Food Standard, administered by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture’s China Green Food Development Center, does permit some amount of pesticide and herbicide use. Agriculture in the Tibetan plateau (where many “Himalayan” or “Tibetan”-branded berries originate) conventionally uses fertilizers and pesticides, making organic claims for berries originating here dubious.

 United Kingdom

The Duke of Argyll introduced Lycium barbarum into the United Kingdom in the 1730s where it is known as Duke of Argyll’s Tea Tree.It was and still is used for hedging, especially in coastal districts. Its red berries are attractive to a wide variety of British birds.

The plant continues to grow wild in UK hedgerows. On 15 January 2003, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs launched a project to improve the regulations protecting traditional countryside hedgerows, and specifically mentioned Duke of Argyll’s Tea Tree as one of the species to be found growing in hedges located in Suffolk Sandlings, Hadleigh, Bawdsey, near Ipswich, and Walberswick.

On June 18, 2007, the FSA (UK Food Standards Agency) stated that there was a significant history of the fruit being consumed in Europe before 1997, and has removed it from the Novel Foods list. It is now legal to sell the wolfberry in the UK as a food as reported by the British Food Standards Agency, but see section below: Marketing claims under scrutiny in Europe.

Importation of mature plants

Importation of wolfberry plants into the United Kingdom from most countries outside Europe is illegal, due to the possibility they could be vectors of diseases attacking Solanaceae crops, such as potato or tomato.

 Uses

Dried wolfberries

Wolfberries are usually sold in open boxes and small packages in dried form.

 Culinary

As a food, dried wolfberries are traditionally cooked before consumption. Dried wolfberries are often added to rice congee and almond jelly, as well as used in Chinese tonic soups, in combination with chicken or pork, vegetables, and other herbs such as wild yam, Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula, and licorice root. The berries are also boiled as an herbal tea, often along with chrysanthemum flowers and/or red jujubes, or with tea, particularly pu-erh tea,[citation needed] and packaged teas are also available.

Various wines containing wolfberries (called gǒuqǐ jiǔ; 枸杞酒) are also produced,including some that are a blend of grape wine and wolfberries.

At least one Chinese company also produces wolfberry beer, and New Belgium Brewery makes their seasonal Springboard ale with wolfberries used as flavoring. Since the early 21st century, an instant coffee product containing wolfberry extract has been produced in China.

Young wolfberry shoots and leaves are also grown commercially as a leaf vegetable.

 Preliminary medical research

Marketing literature for wolfberry products including several “goji juices” suggest that wolfberry polysaccharides have biological effects and possible health benefits, although no such claims have been supported by peer-reviewed research or approved by any regulatory agency.

A 2008 pilot study indicated that parametric data did not show significant differences between subjects receiving Lycium barbarum berry juice and subjects receiving a placebo; the authors, nevertheless, concluded that subjective measures had been affected. This study was subject to various criticisms concerning its experimental design and interpretations.[25]

Published studies have also reported biological effects of Lycium barbarum in animal models, and inferred from this basic research that there may be potential benefits against cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases,vision-related diseases (such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma) or from neuroprotective,anticanceror immunomodulatory activity.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lycium leaves may be used in a tea, together with the root bark (called dìgǔpí; ). A glucopyranoside (namely (+)-Lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) and phenolic amides (dihydro-N-caffeoyltyramine, trans-N-feruloyloctopamine, trans-N-caffeoyltyramine and cis-N-caffeoyltyramine) isolated from wolfberry root bark have inhibitory activity in vitro against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

 Safety issues

Two published case reports described elderly women who experienced increased bleeding, expressed as an elevated INR, after drinking quantities of wolfberry tea.Further in vitro testing revealed that the tea inhibited warfarin metabolism, providing evidence for possible interaction between warfarin and undefined wolfberry phytochemicals.

Atropine, a toxic alkaloid found in other members of the Solanaceae family, occurs naturally in wolfberry fruit. The atropine concentrations of berries from China and Thailand are variable, with a maximum content of 19 ppb, below the likely toxic amount.

 Nutrient content

 Micronutrients and phytochemicals

Wolfberries contain many nutrients and phytochemicals including

Select examples given below are for 100 grams of dried berries.

  • Calcium. Wolfberries contain 112 mg per 100 gram serving, providing about 8-10% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).
  • Potassium. Wolfberries contain 1,132 mg per 100 grams dried fruit, giving about 24% of the DRI.
  • Iron. Wolfberries have 9 mg iron per 100 grams (100% DRI).
  • Zinc. 2 mg per 100 grams dried fruit (18% DRI).
  • Selenium. 100 grams of dried wolfberries contain 50 micrograms (91% DRI)
  • Riboflavin (vitamin B2). At 1.3 mg, 100 grams of dried wolfberries provide 100% of DRI.
  • Vitamin C. Vitamin C content in dried wolfberries has a wide range (from different sources) from 29 mg per 100 grams to as high as 148 mg per 100 grams (respectively, 32% and 163% DRI).

Wolfberries also contain numerous phytochemicals for which there are no established DRI values. Examples:

  • Beta-carotene: 7 mg per 100 grams dried fruit.
  • Zeaxanthin. Reported values for zeaxanthin content in dried wolfberries vary considerably, from 2.4 mg per 100 grams to 82.4 mg per 100 grams to 200 mg per 100 grams. The higher values would make wolfberry one of the richest edible plant sources known for zeaxanthin content  Up to 77% of total carotenoids present in wolfberry exist as zeaxanthin.
  • Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are a major constituent of wolfberries, representing up to 31% of pulp weight.

Wolfberry polysaccharides

One study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology found that:

Endogenous lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidant activities, as assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and immune function were observed in aged mice and restored to normal levels in Lycium polysaccharide-treated groups. Antioxidant activities of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides were found to be comparable with normal antioxidant, vitamin C. Furthemore, adding vitamin C to the polysaccharide treatment further increased in vivo antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides.

Criticism

Marketers of some wolfberry products claim that polysaccharides have specific physiological roles mediated by specialized cell receptors “master” control properties over other bioactive chemicals and cells. Characteristic spectral peaks are claimed to define one berry’s geographic origin from another.

These assertions are an important marketing message for wolfberry products branded as Tibetan Goji Berries or Himalayan Goji Juice. Such statements, however, have no scientific evidence published under peer-reviewand are not compliant with regulatory guidelines for marketing natural food products (see below, Marketing claims under scrutiny in Europe, Canada and the United States).

Functional food and beverage applications

It is often cultivated for a variety of food and beverage applications within China, but increasingly today for export as dried berries, juice, and pulp or grounds. Wolfberries are prized for their versatility of color and nut-like taste in common meals, snacks, beverages, and medicinal applications. A major effort is underway in Ningxia, China to process wolfberries for “functional” wine.

 Marketing

Since the early 21st century, the dried fruit has been marketed in the West as a health food (typically under the name “Tibetan goji berry”), often accompanied by scientifically-unsupported claims regarding its purported health benefits.

Its most claimed nutritional attribute is an exceptional level of vitamin C, to be among the highest in natural plants.However, it was demonstrated by independent assays on dried berries to be quite variable, in a range of 29–148 mg per 100 grams of fruit. This level is comparable to many citrus fruits and strawberries as well as numerous other fruits and berries.

Companies marketing the berries often also include the unsupported myth that a Chinese man named Li Qing Yuen, who was said to have consumed wolfberries daily, lived to the age of 252 years (1678–1930).

 Commercial products marketed outside Asia

Typical of many exotic fruits being introduced into western food and beverage commerce, wolfberry is best known as a juice marketed over the Internet since 2002, often via multi-level marketing that asserts its health benefits. There is an increasing presence of wolfberry in health food stores and grocery markets in many countries.

While juice prepared entirely from fresh wolfberries is rare,blends containing several other berry and fruit juices are used for nearly all “wolfberry” juice products, many of which are nevertheless labeled as “goji juice”. The percentage of wolfberry contained in these juices is generally not stated on the labels of such products.

Other wolfberry consumer applications are

  • Dried berries (pictured above)
  • Berry pieces in granola barsand
  • Skin soap (made from seed oils)
  • Yogurt products

Commercial suppliers have processed wolfberry as

 Marketing claims under scrutiny in Europe

In February 2007, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) of the United Kingdom, an advisor for food safety to the European Food Safety Authority of the European Union (EU), published an inquiry to retailers and health food stores requesting evidence of significant use of wolfberries in Europe before 1997. This period would document a safety history and evaluate how “novel” the berries are in the EU, affecting their authorization status for sale.

Proponents hoped this review would provide important safeguards for consumers by checking whether new foods are suitable for the whole population, including people with food allergies. Opponents on the other hand feared it would limit consumer choice and protect monopolistic interests rather than the public. Food safety in the EU relies importantly on a scientific basis for label information on foods like wolfberries that may be claimed to furnish health benefits.

In June 2007, the FSA announced its decision that wolfberries indeed had a history of use in Great Britain before 1997.Accordingly, wolfberries do not require registration as a novel food.

 Marketing claims under scrutiny in Canada and the United States

In January 2007, marketing statements for a goji juice product were subject of an investigative report by CBC Television‘s consumer advocacy program Marketplace.

By one specific example in the CBC interview, Earl Mindell (then working for direct-marketing company FreeLife International, Inc.) claimed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York had completed clinical studies showing that use of wolfberry juice would prevent 75% of human breast cancer cases, a statement false in three ways:

  1. no such project has been undertaken at Memorial Sloan-Kettering
  2. according to the National Cancer Institute of the US National Institutes of Health, no natural or pharmaceutical agent has been shown in clinical trials to fully prevent[dubiousdiscuss] breast cancer, only to reduce its risk; specifically, there are no completed or ongoing clinical trials in the United States testing the effects of wolfberries or juice on breast cancer outcomes  or any other disease and
  3. scientific evidence for wolfberry phytochemicals or wolfberry juice having cancer-preventive properties is limited. There are preliminary laboratory studies and one Chinese clinical trial.

During 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed two goji juice distributors on notice with warning letters about marketing claims. These statements were in violation of the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act [21 USC/321 (g)(1)] because they “establish the product as a drug intended for use in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease” when wolfberries or juice have had no such scientific evaluation. Additionally stated by the FDA, the goji juice was “not generally recognized as safe and effective for the referenced conditions” and therefore must be treated as a “new drug” under Section 21(p) of the Act. New drugs may not be legally marketed in the United States without prior approval of the FDA.

On May 29, 2009, a class action lawsuit was filed against FreeLife in the United States District Court of Arizona. This lawsuit alleges false claims, misrepresentations, false and deceptive advertising and other issues regarding FreeLife’s Himalayan Goji Juice, GoChi, and TaiSlim products. This lawsuit seeks remedies for consumers who have purchased these products over the past several years.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

HEMATIDROSIS

The case of people suffering from blood sweat fairly rare.  

what exactly Hematidrosis disease? here  some explanations about Hematidrosis disease, may be useful.

 

Hematidrosis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hematidrosis (also called hematohidrosis) is a very rare condition in which a human being sweats blood, though it has not been confirmed scientifically. It may occur when a person is suffering extreme levels of stress, for example, facing his or her own death. Several historical references have been described; notably by Leonardo da Vinci: describing a soldier who sweated blood before battle, men unexpectedly given a death sentence, as well as descriptions in the Bible, that Jesus experienced hematidrosis when he was praying in the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:44). 

 Cutaneous hemorrhage

According to Dr. Frederick Zugibe (former Chief Medical Examiner of Rockland County, New York) it is well-known, and there have been many cases of it. The clinical term is hematohidrosis. “Around the sweat glands, there are multiple blood vessels in a net-like form. Under the pressure of great stress the vessels constrict. Then as the anxiety passes the blood vessels dilate to the point of rupture. The blood goes into the sweat glands. As the sweat glands are producing a lot of sweat, it pushes the blood to the surface – coming out as droplets of blood mixed with sweat.”

In a lecture, Dr. Zugibe stated: “The severe mental anxiety…activated the sympathetic nervous system to invoke the stress-fight or flight reaction to such a degree causing hemorrhage of the vessels supplying the sweat glands into the ducts of the sweat glands and extruding out onto the skin. While hematidrosis has been reported to occur from other rare medical entities, the presence of profound fear accounted for a significant number of reported cases including six cases in men condemned to execution, a case occurring during the London blitz, a case involving a fear of being raped, a fear of a storm while sailing, etc. The effects on the body is that of weakness and mild to moderate dehydration from the severe anxiety and both the blood and sweat loss.”

Another effect is that the skin become extremely tender and fragile, so that any pressure or damage to the skin is more than ordinarily painful.

 

HEMATIDROSIS

by  Dave Miller, Ph.D.

 

Luke, the author of the New Testament books of Luke and Acts, by profession, was a physician. His writings manifest an intimate acquaintance with the technical language of the Greek medical schools of Asia Minor. For example, of the four gospel writers, only Dr. Luke referred to Jesus’ ordeal as “agony” (agonia). It is because of this agony over things to come that we learn during His prayer “his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground” (Luke 22:44). Only Luke referred to Jesus’ sweat (idros), a much used term in medical language, and only Luke referred to Jesus’ sweat as consisting of great drops of blood (thromboi haimatos)—a medical condition alluded to by both Aristotle and Theophrastus (Hobart, 1882, pp. 80-84). The Greek term thromboi (from which we get thrombus, thrombin, et al.) refers to clots of blood (Nicoll, n.d., 1:631; Vincent, 1887, 1:425). Bible scholar Richard Lenski commented on the use of this term: “‘As clots,’ thromboi, means that the blood mingled with the sweat and thickened the globules so that they fell to the ground in little clots and did not merely stain the skin” (1961, p. 1077).

The Greek word hosei (“as it were”) refers to condition, not comparison, as Greek scholar Henry Alford observed:

The intention of the Evangelist seems clearly to be, to convey the idea that the sweat was (not fell like, but was like drops of blood;—i.e., coloured with blood,—for so I understand the hosei, as just distinguishing the drops highly coloured with blood, from pure blood…. To suppose that it only fell like drops of blood (why not drops of any thing else? And drops of blood from what, and where?) is to nullify the force of the sentence, and make the insertion of haimatos not only superfluous but absurd (1874, 1:648, italics in orig.; cf. Robertson, 1934, p. 1140).

We conclude that the terminology used by the gospel writer to refer to the severe mental distress experienced by Jesus was intended to be taken literally, i.e., that the sweat of Jesus became bloody (cf. Robertson, 1930, 2:272).

A thorough search of the medical literature demonstrates that such a condition, while admittedly rare, can and has occurred. Commonly referred to as hematidrosis or hemohidrosis (“Hematidrosis,” 2002; Allen, 1967, pp. 745-747), this condition results in the excretion of blood or blood pigment in the sweat. Under conditions of great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can rupture (Lumpkin, 1978), thus mixing blood with perspiration. This condition has been reported in extreme instances of stress (see Sutton, 1956, pp. 1393-1394). During the waning years of the twentieth century, 76 cases of hematidrosis were studied and classified into categories according to causative factors (Holoubek and Holoubek, 1996). Acute fear and intense mental contemplation were found to be the most frequent inciting causes. While the extent of blood loss generally is minimal, hematidrosis also results in the skin becoming extremely tender and fragile (Barbet, 1953, pp. 74-75; Lumpkin, 1978), which would have made Christ’s pending physical insults even more painful.

From these factors, it is evident that even before Jesus endured the torture of the cross, He suffered far beyond what most of us will ever suffer. His penetrating awareness of the heinous nature of sin, its destructive and deadly effects, the sorrow and heartache that it inflicts, and the extreme measure necessary to deal with it, make the passion of Christ beyond comprehension.

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and the last, news from Jakarta , Indonesia

jakarta, Description: The case of people suffering from blood sweat fairly rare. This condition is called hematidrosis (Sweat Blood), which in certain conditions can be caused by another disease or high blood pressure.

Symptoms: Exit sweat blood in the skin pores while experiencing stress anxiety or fear that the causes very small blood vessels that supply the sweat glands become tighter and smaller, so that when blood vessels dilate bleeding will occur.

Cause: Stress, fear or anxiety or extreme extremely experienced in a person causes the release of a chemical that can be
break the capillaries in the sweat glands. As a result there is a small amount of bleeding so that the sweat that comes out along with blood.

Dr. Frederick Zugibe, a forensic expert from New York said hematidrosis is one extreme side effects of fight or flight response. Most occur when a person experiences stress anxiety or fear of very deep, as quoted from HowStuffWorks, Wednesday (06/01/2011).

Sweating blood can indeed scary and very rare. But this condition is usually associated with other diseases such as hemochromatosis, which is the condition of the dangers which many iron formed and stored in the body that makes a person vulnerable to hematidrosis.

In addition there is also another theory that says that the extreme anxiety or fear experienced by a person causes the release of a chemical that can break the capillaries in the sweat glands. As a result there is a small amount of bleeding so that the sweat that comes out along with blood.

Dr. Zugibe said some cases associated with hematidrosis reportedly occurred when a person experiences fear and sentenced to execution is also due to fear of storms while sailing center.

Effects that occur in the body associated with this hematidrosis include weakness, mild to moderate dehydration and high anxiety makes a person sweat to sweat blood.

(http://health.detik.com)

 

 

Camellia sinensis

Camellia sinensis

from Wikipedia

Klasifikasi ilmiah

Kingdom:Plantae

Divisi: Magnoliophyta

Kelas: Magnoliopsida

Ordo: Ericales

Famili: Theaceae

Genus: Camellia

Spesies: C. sinensis

Nama binomial Camellia sinensis (L.)

Kuntze Camellia sinensis adalah tanaman teh, spesies tanaman yang daun dan pucuk daunnya digunakan untuk membuat teh. Tumbuhan ini termasuk genus Camellia (Hanzi tradisional: 茶花; bahasa Tionghoa: 茶花; Pinyin: Cháhuā), suatu genus tumbuhan berbunga dari famili Theaceae. Teh putih, teh hijau, oolong dan teh hitam semuanya didapat dari spesies ini, namun diproses secara berbeda untuk memperoleh tingkat oksidasi yang berbeda. Kukicha (teh ranting) juga dipanen dari Camellia sinensis, namun tidak memakai daun melainkan ranting. Nama sinensis dalam bahasa Latin berarti Cina. Sedangkan Camellia diambil dari nama Latin Pendeta Georg Kamel, S.J (1661 – 1706), seorang pendeta kelahiran Ceko yang menjadi seorang pakar botani dan misionaris. Meskipun Kamel tidak menemukan maupun menamai tumbuhan ini, Carolus Linnaeus, pencipta sistem taksonomi yang masih dipakai hingga sekarang, memilih namanya sebagai penghargaan atas kontribusi Kamel terhadap sains. Nama lama untuk tumbuhan teh ini termasuk Thea bohea, Thea sinensis, dan Thea viridis. Camellia sinensis berasal dari daratan Asia Selatan dan Tenggara, namun sekarang telah dibudidayakan di seluruh dunia, baik daerah tropis maupun subtropis. Tumbuhan ini merupakan perdu atau pohon kecil yang biasanya dipangkas bila dibudidayakan untuk dipanen daunnya. Ia memiliki akar tunggang yang kuat. Bunganya kuning-putih berdiameter 2,5–4 cm dengan 7 hingga 8 petal. Tumbuhan Camellia sinensis, dengan irisan melintang bunga (kiri bawah) dan bijinya (kanan bawah). Biji Camellia sinensis serta biji Camellia oleifera dapat di pres untuk mendapatkan minyak teh, suatu bumbu yang agak manis sekaligus minyak masak yang berbeda dari minyak pohon teh, suatu minyak atsiri yang dipakai untuk tujuan kesehatan dan kecantikan dan berasal dari dedaunan tumbuhan yang berbeda. Daunnya memiliki panjang 4–15 cm dan lebar 2–5 cm. Daun segar mengandung kafein sekitar 4%. Daun muda yang berwarna hijau muda lebih disukai untuk produksi teh; daun-daun itu mempunyai rambut-rambut pendek putih di bagian bawah daun. Daun tua berwarna lebih gelap. Daun dengan umur yang berbeda menghasilkan kualitas teh yang berbeda-beda, karena komposisi kimianya yang berbeda. Biasanya, pucuk dan dua hingga tiga daun pertama dipanen untuk permrosesan. Pemetikan dengan tangan ini diulang setiap dua minggu. Budidaya Tanaman teh terutama dibudidayakan di daerah beriklim tropis dan subtropis, di areal dengan curah hujan sedikitnya 50 inci setahun. Namun, ia dibudidayakan secara komersial dari katulistiwa hingga sejauh Cornwall di daratan utama Inggris.banyak teh kualitas tinggi ditanam di ketinggian hingga 1500 meter karena tanaman ini tumbuh lebih lambat dan rasanya yang lebih baik. Tumbuhan teh akan menjadi pohon jika dibiarkan tumbuh begitu saja, sedangkan tanaman teh budidaya dipangkas agar mudah dipetik. 

Teh India Teh India biasanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan daerah tumbuhnya; tiga daerah penghasil teh utama di India dalah Darjeeling, Assam dan Nilgiri. Karena kondisi tumbuh yang bagus Darjeeling dianggap penggemar teh sebagai teh India yang terbaik. Assam adalah daerah penghasil teh terbesar di India dengan produksi 473.000 ton setiap tahunnya. Assam memiliki 271.768 hektar perkebunan teh dengan 43.293 hektar tanaman yang berproduksi. Teh Assam kaya akan rasa dan sering digunakan sebagai bahan utama campuran teh sarapan pagi. Teh Nilgiri ditanam di wilayah pegunungan Biru India Selatan. Daerah penghasil ini meliputi 62.039 hektar dan 62.145 hektar kebun teh. Produksi teh tahunan sekitar 120.000 ton. Buah berbiji dari Camellia sinensis  Teh Cina Tanaman Teh Cina (kadang-kadang disebut Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) adalah semak berdaun kecil dengan banyak cabang yang mencapai tinggi sekitar 3 meter dan berasal dari Cina tenggara. tanaman teh pertama yang ditemukan, tercatat dan dipakai untuk menghasilkan teh tiga ribu tahun yang lalu, ia menghasilkan beberapa teh yang terpopuler. Camellia sinensis var. waldenae semula dianggap sebagai spesies yang berbeda, Camellia waldenae oleh S.Y.Hu,tetapi kemudian diidentidikasi sebagai varietas dari Camellia sinensis.

Varietas ini umum disebut Camellia Walden. Ia terlihat di puncak gunung Tai Mo Shan dan Tai Tung Shan di Hong Kong. Ia juga tersebar di Provinsi Guangxi, Cina. Penggunaan Pengobatan  Daun teh digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional Tionghoa serta sistem pengobatan lainnya untuk mengobati asma (berfungsi sebagai pelebar bronkus), angina pektoris, penyakit vaskuler perifer, dan penyakit jantung koroner. Ekstrak teh telah menjadi perhatian karena diketahui mempunyai aktivitas antibakteri. Pengawetan makanan organik yang diproses serta pengobatan infeksi bakteri yang menetap sedang diselidiki. 

Daun teh hijau dan ekstraknya telah ditunjukkan efektif terhadap bakteri yang menyebabkan napas buruk.  Komponen kimia teh yang disebut epikatekin galat di sedang diteliti karena eksprerimen in-vitro menunjukkan bahwa ia dapat membalikkan kekebalan bakteri terhadap antibiotik metisilin pada bakteri seperti Staphylococcus aureus. Dikonfirmasi bahwa jika dikombinasikan meminum bersama ekstrak teh yang mengandung komponen ini akan meningkatkan efektifitas pengobatan dengan metisilin terhadap bakteri yang kebal.

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Camellia sinensis, Tea, branching
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, branching
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf upper
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf upper
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf under
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf under
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf margin upper
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf margin upper
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf base under
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, leaf base under
Camellia sinensis, Tea, fruit
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, fruit
Camellia sinensis, Tea, fruit
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, fruit
Camellia sinensis, Tea, stem
© Graham Wyatt, 2009-2010
Camellia sinensis, Tea, stem
Camellia sinensis, Tea Camellia flowers
© The State Botanical Garden of Georgia 2007
Camellia sinensis, Tea Camellia flowers
Camellia sinensis
© The State Botanical Garden of Georgia 2007
Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
© The State Botanical Garden of Georgia 2007
Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
© The State Botanical Garden of Georgia 2007
Camellia sinensis

Turkish Van

The Turkish Van is a recognized cat breed that is known for its unusual love of water and swimming. They were created from the cats native to the Lake Van area. The cats of this type are named in Turkish Van Kedisi[ (although it is used to refer solely to the all-white form), in Armenian vana katu (Armenian: վանա կատու), and in Kurdish (Pisîka Wanê).Originally called in the West the Turkish Cat, the name was changed in 1979 in the U.S. (1985 in the U.K.) to Turkish Vanto better distance the breed from the Turkish Angora cat which had its origins around Ankara, in central Turkey. Traditionally, in the cat fancy, Turkish Vans are recognized as patterned cats with colour restricted to the head and tail with the body of the cat being white. However, in Turkey, the cat is recognised in an all-white form as well as the form with red patterning and a “fox tail”, and with blue eyes, amber eyes, or one eye of each colour (Heterochromia iridis)

Origins

Van Guzelli Iskenderun, the first registered Turkish Van, was exported from Turkey in 1955 by Laura Lushington

In the Complete Cat Encyclopedia, edited by Grace Pond and published in 1972, Laura Lushington wrote that:

“One of the two accepted breeds in Turkey, the Van Cat is now known in Britain as the Turkish Cat. Originating in the Lake Van area of southeastern Turkey, these cats have been domesticated for centuries (in fact for as long as the famous Saluki Hound); they are much loved and prized by the Turks for their exceptional character and unique colouring. Apart from their great capacity for affection and alert intelligence, their outstanding characteristic is their liking for water, not normally regarded as a feline attribute. They not only dabble in water and play with it, but have been known to enter ponds and even horse-troughs for a swim — they soon became famous as the ‘swimming cats.’ I was first given a pair of Van kittens in 1955 while traveling in Turkey, and decided to bring them back to England, although touring by car and mainly camping at the time — the fact that they survived in good condition showed up the great adaptability and intelligence of their breed in trying circumstances. Experience showed that they bred absolutely true. They were not known in Britain at that time and, because they make such intelligent and charming pets, I decided to try to establish the breed, and to have it recognized officially in Britain by the GCCF.”

Historic references to the breed

Starting from the 16th century, the first long-haired cats were brought to Europe as wonders because there had been only short-haired cats in Europe at the time. Numerous Vans had been imported as Angora cats that were introduced a little earlier. At the same time, red-and-white van-patterned Van cats were usually described as whites that may be seen at the painting of French artist Antoine Jean Bail (1830–1918) named “A Young Girl With A White Cat”.It seems that little changed since then. If we look carefully at the people’s vacation photos that are published even in the Internet, we may notice that several of the ‘white’ Van cats in the pictures plainly had patches of red fur. As it was noticed by the visitors of Van region, the current population of Van tended to describe cats which were nearly all white (with high degree of white spotting) as “white.” And even at present, when it was confirmed by a geneticist that Vans and Angoras are definitely separate breeds, Vans are sometimes confused with Turkish Angoras, although a side-by-side comparison reveals vastly different characteristics. The Angora cats originated in the ancient Byzantine city Ankira (Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra, meaning “Anchor“) that was also known to the West as Angora (after the town was occupied by Seljuck Turks at the beginning of 11th c.) (Ankara modern capital of Turkey), and descended separately from the Vans.

 Characteristics

The coat is the most fascinating trait on this cat. The climate change in Eastern Anatolia region throughout the year seems to have designed the cat’s coat over time. Eastern Anatolia is mountainous, and Lake Van sits over 5,260 ft (1,600 m). above sea level. The area faces such extreme temperatures during the summer and winter seasons that it is almost inhospitable. The semi-long haired, water resistant single coat, is thick in winter but very soft, like rabbit fur or cashmere. At maturity, the cat will have a winter mane. During the spring and summer months when it becomes extremely hot, the long hair on the body is shed for a shorter coat that retains the cashmere feel. The hair on the tail remains long throughout the year and has the appearance of a bottle brush.

The Turkish Van is a large, semi-longhaired cat with a swimmer’s body. Ideal type should feature broad shoulders with a body that is ‘top heavy’, that is a cat with its center of gravity forward. The cat is moderately long and its back legs are slightly longer than its front legs but, neither the cat itself nor its legs are so long to be disproportionate. These cats are large and muscular and feature short necks. Male Vans grow to about 16 pounds (7 kg), while females tend to be a bit lighter in weight, 12 to 14 lb (5 to 6 kg). A Van will take up to 3 years to reach full maturity. Vans have been known to reach 3 ft (1 m) long from nose to tip of tail.

The shoulders of the Turkish Van are broad with the ability for one to place three fingers between the legs at the chest area. It is said that large Van males are the only domestic cats that cannot follow their heads through a fence due to the broadness of their chest and shoulders. The rear end on the cat should not exceed the width of the shoulders — in other words, no bell bottomed or pear shape should be seen.

Turkish Vans are very intelligent, and will easily take over their home and owners. Vans are people cats that want to be with people wherever they go. They like to play and jump and explore anything in their reach, which is quite large. They are energetic; they play hard and sleep hard. Unusual for cat breeds, Turkish Vans love to play in the water and will join you in the tub for a dip or help you in the sink and are known as “the swimming cat.” Many Vans are dedicated to fetching their particular object of interest, and many owners describe them as “dogs in a cat suit” because of their unusual personalities.

Vans, because of their fine fur, create less allergic reactions than most cats. Cat dander and saliva cause most allergic responses, however the fine fur helps decrease the issues.

 Breed standards

The coloring of the Turkish Van should be limited to the head and tail with random body spots acceptable but all color should not exceed more than 20% of the entire cat with no lower case markings (marking on the legs). The random spots should not detract from the pattern. This would be a small color cap on the head with a white blaze to at least between the front edge of the ears, and a colored tail in any of the traditional colors. The rest of the cat is chalk white. Color can extend up the rump from the tail of the cat and patterned cats often have a random spot or spots of color on the shoulder (more frequently on the left shoulder) or body.

White Turkish Vans should be solid white if that variety is accepted by their registration association.

The traditional color of a Turkish Van is Red Tabby and White; as this was the first color exported out of Turkey. Later colors added were Cream, Black, Blue, Cream Tabby, Brown Tabby, Blue Tabby, Tortoiseshell, Dilute Tortoiseshell, Brown Torbie, and Blue Torbie.

Currently, in Turkey, the Van Kedisi (English: Van cat) is recognized only as an all white cat, generally with eyes of two different colors (see Odd-eyed cat). These all-white cats may be either short or long haired. The all white Turkish Van is claimed to be genetically identical to the patterned cat with the exception of the white masking gene (W) that “covers” the pattern. Offspring of a white Turkish Van mated to a patterned Van will be a 50/50 mix of white and patterned kittens. However, this can only be the case if the white is masking the van pattern. As white can mask any possible cat color and pattern, solid and bicolor kittens could be produced from a white to van-patterned mating. At present cat associations in England recognize the patterned offspring of such a mating as Turkish Vans and the white offspring as a new breed called Turkish Vankedisi. WCF and FIFe, the largest international cat fancy organizations, recognize only van-patterned TUVs. In the U.S., TICA has fully accepted the white vans as Turkish Vans as has the Government of Turkey. CFA, the world’s largest registry of pedigreed cats, does not recognize the all-white Turkish Van as they define the breed by both its type and pattern.

Legend of the coat markings

Many van-patterned Van cats have a small mark on the coat between the shoulder blades. This mark can also be seen in red and white van-patterned Turkish Vans, i.e. the Turkish Van cats of classical color. The spot on the left shoulder, resembles the shape of the print of a thumb due to the presence of the agouti gene, which is responsible for tabby coloration and always present in red color in cats, giving rise to lighter and darker tones in the red marks of Van cats. The mark on the left shoulder can look as if the coloration was pressed out from the center to the periphery under the pressure of a finger. The Kurds call this mark “the thumbprint of God’s right hand”, and consider it a sign of good luck. There is a local legend telling that God blessed the Van cat by putting His right hand on it as the cat left Noah’s Ark. In the places on the cat’s coat where the Creator had touched it (head, shoulder and tail), the flaming marks appeared.

Anyhow, this legend gives no explanations as to why the cat had been blessed by the Creator. The tenth century Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari‘s, recorded a legend that may give the answer. According to this legend, Noah caused a pair of cats to come from the lion’s nose to deal with rats that tried to make a hole in the bottom of the Ark.That this story was well-known in the region is proved by the existence of a Persian proverb saying that “the lion had sneezed, and the cat appeared”.

The origin of the legends and proverb lay in the ancient cults that existed in Van lake region in pre-historic times. The felines excel in their fertility, and it looks like that, as in other Indo-Europeans, in the period of early heathendom the Armenians’ veneration for the lionesses, leopardesses and cats had some relationship to the worship of the mother deity. It is also known that before AD 301, when the Armenians adopted Christianity as a state religion, there had been a temple of Astghik, a pagan deity, which in the earliest prehistoric period of heathendom in Armenia had been worshiped as mother-goddess, in the ever-existed village of Artamet, located on the shore of Lake Van, that later became a residential suburb of the city of Van, famous for its exclusively tasty apples.

Varieties

Red tabby
Cream Turkish Van
Black and white
Tortie and white

 Van pattern in the Turkish Van cat

The first things that attract the eye, when one looks at a pedigreed classic Turkish Van cat are copper-brown (or sometimes the color is described as chestnut-red) spots on an otherwise white background occurring at the head, the back (in the area of the left shoulder), and the tail. The Van cat has a colored and ringed full brush tail, resembling a fox-brush with the end in the form of a paintbrush. The position of the color marks was so special that this pattern on a cat’s coat was named “van pattern” after the Van cat. Then this pattern was introduced into other breeds by means of mating with Van cats or a breeding program with strict choice and selection of partners to establish the van pattern, though the last statement is not confirmed by any records. At present we may see a van pattern in several breeds including the Turkish Angora, Persian, Siberian, Norwegian Forest, British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Maine Coon, Ragdoll, LaPerm, and even among Sphynx. There is another supposition on the origin of van pattern in other breeds, according to which it was a separate mutation in S locus that is responsible for the white spotting. The other alleles of S locus ensure special spotting in such breed as the Sacred Birman cat, and the regular spots of bi-colors, and the van pattern in various breeds.

The other distinguishing features of the Turkish Van cat are a broad thorax, evidence of its excellent qualities as a swimmer, and also silky dense water-repellent hairs of the coat, that dries nearly instantly even in cold season of the year. This is necessary for this excellent fisher, who may be in the water, even in winter. The texture of this semi-long haired coat is so delightful that you will probably feel joy and pleasure, and maybe a sense of calm tranquility, when you have a Van cat in your hands.

And if we speak about the eye color of a present day purebred Van cat, the eyes may be blue or amber color or a cat may be odd-eyed: one eye may be blue, and the other — amber colored. The variability of eye color is genetically caused by the so named “white-spotting” factor, which is a characteristic of this breed. The “white-spotting” factor is the variable expression of the piebald gene that varies from the minimal degree (1), as in the blue-eyed cats with white tip on the tail like Altay and California cats, as in the cats with mitts, like Birman cat, to the maximal degree (8–9) that results in a Van-patterned cat, as in Van cats, when colored marks occupy at most 20% of the white background, but the white background in the breed covers about 80% of the body. Breeding two cats together with the same level of white spotting will produce cats with a similar degree of spotting.

Verdian Cihangir (Odd-eyed). Photographer Heikki Siltala

Only some solitary colored marks on the head between the white ears with the obligatory white “blaze” running from back of the head to the forehead and the tail ring-colored in the same color, remained of the pigmentation in Van cats. This position of markings on the head and body is determined by one of the alleles of the white spotting gene, which is named after the name of the cats of Lake Van — Sv — white piebald Spotted Van. The tortoiseshell (black and red occurring in the pattern) Vans are permitted to have the marks of other color in the named areas. The existence of other alleles of the gene of white spotting, creates coat colors with less quantity of white, (i.e., bi-colors and particolors), than the Van cat. When the white color covers more than half of the body, and the white, in general, occurs in the lower part of the body, that is the belly and paws, or when only the white gloves and socks remain of the white-colored part, as in Snowshoe or Birman, in Van cats this may serve as a sign of crossbreeding with the cats of other regions. Only the absolutely regular marks on the head and the colored tail are desired for showing and breeding of Van cats. Some colored marks on the body, on the left shoulder, in particular, are permitted. The removal of Van cats with bi-color and harlequin pattern (which can be indicative of mixed heritage) from a breeding program is necessary to maintain the uniqueness and uniformity of the gene pool. The van-patterned cats generally breed true, and a bi-color will not be produced out of a Van to Van breeding, because Van cats are homozygous for the van-pattern gene (Sv Sv). So, the pure-bred Van cat to pure-bred Van cat breeding may not produce any other pattern, unless something in the background is coming out. Breeders should place these cats as pets and not continue to use them. Van cats should be homozygous for the van-pattern gene, and the introduction of white or bicolor cats will result in the birth of the kittens heterozygous for the van-pattern gene (Sv-). And though the phenotype of the kittens may correspond to the requirements of the breed standard, the genotype will not be identical to the genotype of pedigree Van cat. This “heritage” will result in the deviation of the van pattern in the off-springs, because genetically they will have in the background other pigmentation genes and alleles of the piebald gene. The introduction of white cats in breeding programs makes the situation more dramatic, because of the effect of the white color gene (W) on all other pigmentation genes that masks all other coloration in cat coat, and it will be arguable to guess, which color genes the specific all-white cat carries. Beside the van pattern, all other patterns of the cats of this breed may only witness that the true selection of this breed is in front, and depends on the enthusiasts.

“Ringed” tail pattern of a Turkish Van

A breed is created not only by the color and pattern, but some other constitutional traits. The Persian and Turkish Angora cats of the same white color will differ in body size and boning, its width and length, form of the head, and peculiarities of muzzle in front and profile views. The Turkish Angora or angora-kedi, as it is called in Turkey, differs from Vans not only with the coloration of hair and eyes, but greater elegance and dry falling texture of coat. The Vans have more mighty bones and solid muscular system. Because of the broad chest, the Vans’ front legs are set apart on the body. The tail of a mature Van shall resemble a bottlebrush, and shall not have as long hair, as the Turkish Angoras have. The coat of the Vans is influenced by seasonal changes, because of the great temperature difference in summer and winter at their homeland Van. The winter coat is longer and fluffier. Also there is difference between the coat of the Van cats of English and Dutch breeding programs: so named “English” and “Dutch” coats. But when the cats reach maturity at the age of 3–5 years, all the Vans have the same coat. In any case, the characteristic trait of the breed is the absence of wooly undercoat.

Differences between the Van-patterned Vans and Solid White Angora and Van Kedisi

The solid white Angoras carry the epistatic (masking) white color (W-) dominant gene associated with white fur, blue eyes and deafness. The same are all white Van Kedisi. As Assistant Professor of Van University, Mr Hasan Koyun explained: “We are going to research, why they (Van Kedisi) have such eyes. And also we are going to study the connection between the eye-color and deafness, because often the odd-eyed cats are deaf”. The problem of deafness in solid white cats is not new. In one 1997 study of deaf white cats, 72% of the animals were found to be totally deaf.

While van-patterned Vans are not deaf, because their phenotype is associated with van pattern (Sv) semidominant gene. Van cat’s eye color also can be amber, blue or odd (one amber and one blue), but van-patterned Vans with two blue eyes are not deaf like Angoras and Van Kedisi. As of late, some Vans have developed green eyes, though the green shade is not rated highly with breed associations.

Another peril that shall make anxious the solid white cats owners and breeders is the fact, that due to the lack of pigmentation in the skin, all white cats are more sensitive to sunlight and are more likely to become sunburned and develop skin cancer.

The introduction of all-white color gene (W-) may cause new insidious menaces that will manifest themselves in the future, several generations later. In the Turkish Angora, mostly known as all-white, an autosomal recessive Hereditary ataxia is found. Another genetic illness known to the Turkish Angora is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, which is an autosomal dominant gene that affects many other breeds (from Maine Coons to Persians).Turkish vans have orange on their tail and their ears.

Preservation of the native Van cat

All-white Van Kedisi, Van region, Turkey, 1973, showing different coloured eyes

Turkish Vans are a naturally occurring breed of cat. They can still be found in east Turkey, near Lake Van, although their numbers have diminished, and a 1992 survey found only 92 pure Turkish Van cats in their native area. All forms of Van cat are now under the protection of the Turkish government. There is a breeding programme for the all-white Van Kedisi cats at the Van Cat House within the grounds of Van University.Nicknames that some people call Turkish Vans include swimming vans, turkish swimming cats and swimming cats.

courtesy : wikipedia

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Turkish Van

Turkish Van

Turkish Van

Tetraodontidae/ Ikan Buntal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the Tetraodontiformes order. The family includes many familiar species which are variously called pufferfish, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab. They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines (unlike the thinner, hidden spines of Tetraodontidae, which are only visible when the fish has puffed up). The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey.

Puffer fish are generally believed to be the second–most poisonous vertebrate in the world, after the Golden Poison Frog. Certain internal organs, such as liver, and sometimes their skin are highly toxic to most animals when eaten, but nevertheless the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as 河豚, pronounced as fugu), Korea (as bok), and China (as 河豚 he2 tun2) when prepared by chefs who know which part is safe to eat and in what quantity.

The tetraodontidae contains at least 189 species of puffers in 19 genera.They are most diverse in the tropics and relatively uncommon in the temperate zone and completely absent from cold waters. They are typically small to medium in size, although a few species can reach lengths of greater than 100 centimetres (39 in).

Ecology and life history

Although most species live in inshore and estuarine waters, 29 species spend their entire life cycles in freshwater. These species are found in disjunct tropical regions of South America (1 species), Central Africa (3 species) and Southeast Asia (25 species).

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Order: Tetraodontiformes
Family: Tetraodontidae

Genera

Arothron
Auriglobus
Canthigaster
Carinotetraodon
Chelonodon
Colomesus
Contusus
Ephippion
Feroxodon
Fugu
Gastrophysus
Javichthys
Lagocephalus
Liosaccus
Marilyna
Monotretus
Omegaphora
Pelagocephalus
Polyspina
Reicheltia
Sphoeroides
Takifugu
Tetractenos
Tetraodon
Torquigener
Tylerius
Xenopterus

Natural defenses

A puffer fish pressing its mouth against a camera lens at Big Island of Hawaii

The puffer’s unique and distinctive natural defenses help compensate for their slow locomotion. Puffers move by combining pectoral, dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. This makes them highly maneuverable but very slow, and therefore comparatively easy predation targets. Their tail fin is mainly used as a rudder, but it can be used for a sudden evasive burst of speed that shows none of the care and precision of their usual movements. The puffer’s excellent eyesight combined with this speed burst is the first and most important defense against predators. Their back up defense mechanism, used if they are successfully pursued, is to fill their extremely elastic stomachs with water (or air when outside the water) until they are much larger and almost spherical in shape. Even if they are not visible when the puffer is not inflated, all puffers have pointed spines, so a hungry predator may suddenly find itself facing an unpalatable pointy ball rather than a slow, tasty fish. Predators which don’t heed this warning (or who are “lucky” enough to catch the puffer suddenly, before or during inflation) may die from choking, and predators that do manage to swallow the puffer may find their stomachs full of tetrodotoxin, making puffers an unpleasant, possibly lethal, choice of prey. This neurotoxin is found primarily in the ovaries and liver, although smaller amounts exist in the intestines and skin, as well as trace amounts in muscle. It does not always have a lethal effect on large predators, such as sharks, but it can kill humans.

Not all puffers are necessarily poisonous; Takifugu oblongus, for example, is a fugu puffer that is not poisonous, and toxin level varies wildly even in fish that are. A puffer’s neurotoxin is not necessarily as toxic to other animals as it is to humans, and puffers are eaten routinely by some species of fish, such as lizardfishand tiger sharks.Also, Japanese fish farmers have grown nonpoisonous puffers by controlling their diet.

Puffers are able to move their eyes independently, and many species can change the color or intensity of their patterns in response to environmental changes. In these respects they are somewhat similar to the terrestrial chameleon. Although most puffers are drab, many have bright colors and distinctive markings and make no attempt to hide from predators. This is likely an example of aposematism.

Reproduction

Many marine puffers have a pelagic, or open-ocean, life stage. Spawning occurs after males slowly push females to the water surface or join females already present. The eggs are spherical and buoyant. Hatching occurs after roughly four days. The fry are tiny, but under magnification have a shape that is usually reminiscent of a puffer fish. They have a functional mouth and eyes, and must eat within a few days. Brackish water puffers may breed in bays in a similar manner to marine species, or may breed more similarly to the fresh water species, in cases where they have moved far enough upriver.

Reproduction in fresh water species varies quite a bit. The dwarf puffers court with males following females, possibly displaying the crests and keels unique to this subgroup of species. After the female accepts his advances, the she will lead the male into plants, moss or another form of cover, where she can release eggs for fertilization. The male may help her by rubbing against her side. This has been observed in captivity, and they are the only commonly captive spawned puffer species.

Target-group puffers have also been spawned in aquariums, and follow a similar courting behavior, minus the crest/keel display. However, eggs are laid on a flat piece of slate or other smooth hard material, to which they adhere. The male will guard them until they hatch, carefully blowing water over them regularly to keep the eggs healthy. His parenting is finished when the young hatch, and the fry are on their own.

Information on breeding of specific species is very limited. T. Nigroviridis, the Green Spotted Puffer, has recently been artificially spawned under captive conditions. It is believed to spawn in bays in a similar manner to salt water species, as their sperm were found to be motile only at full marine salinities, but actual wild breeding has never been observed.

Evolution

The Tetraodontids have been estimated to diverge from diodontids between 89 and 138 million years ago. There are four major clades and these diverged during the Cretaceous between 80 and 101 million years ago.

Human interaction

 Poisoning

Puffer poisoning usually results from consumption of incorrectly prepared puffer soup, fugu chiri, or occasionally from raw puffer meat, sashimi fugu. While chiri is much more likely to cause death, sashimi fugu often causes intoxication, light-headedness, and numbness of the lips, and is often eaten for this reason. Puffer’s (tetrodotoxin) poisoning deadens the tongue and lips, and induces dizziness and vomiting, followed by numbness and prickling over the body, rapid heart rate, decreased blood pressure, and muscle paralysis. The toxin paralyzes diaphragm muscles and stops the person who has ingested it from breathing. People who live longer than 24 hours typically survive, although possibly after a coma lasting several days. Some people claim to have remained fully conscious throughout the coma, and can often recount events that occurred while they were supposedly unconscious.[citation needed] The paralysis reduces oxygen demands of the body dramatically, but because the toxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier, neural activity in the brain and from the eyes and ears are generally intact. In Voodoo, puffer’s poison must be part of the mixture given to the victim to make them a “zombie“, most likely because the paralysis and pseudo-comatose effect simulate the death portion of traditional zombie creation.

Pufferfish, called pakpao in Thailand, are usually consumed by mistake. They are often cheaper than other fish, and because they contain inconsistent levels of toxins between fish and season, there is little awareness or monitoring of the danger. Consumers are regularly hospitalized or die because cooks do not know which organs are not safe.

Treatment consists of supportive care and intestinal decontamination with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Case reports suggest that anticholinesterases such as edrophonium may be effective.

Saxitoxin, the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning and red tide can also be found in certain puffers. Cases of neurological symptoms, including numbness and tingling of the lips and mouth, have been reported to rise after the consumption of puffers caught in the area of Titusville, Florida. The symptoms generally resolve within hours to days, although one affected individual required intubation for 72 hours. As a result, Florida banned the harvesting of puffers from certain bodies of water.

It is not believed that puffers produce toxins themselves, as puffer fish kept in tanks or fish farms are totally free of either toxin. The gastric contents of shellfish prey are believed to carry the toxins or their precursors, which are stored in the puffers organs.

The Royal Wedding

The Royal Wedding

The wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine Middleton took place on Friday, 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey, London. Prince William, second in the line of succession to Queen Elizabeth II, first met Catherine Middleton in 2001, while both were studying at St Andrews University. Their engagement, which began on 20 October 2010, was announced on 16 November 2010.

The build-up to the wedding and the occasion itself attracted much media attention, with the service broadcasted live around the world, and with it being compared and contrasted in many ways to the 1981 marriage of William’s parents, Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer. It was watched by a global television audience of over two billion. Much of the attention focused on Middleton’s status as a commoner (i.e., not of royal blood or a part of the aristocracy) marrying into royalty. Hours before the service, William was granted the titles of the Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus by the Queen. Upon her marriage, Middleton therefore became Her Royal Highness Princess William Arthur Philip Louis, Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn, Baroness Carrickfergus, but is not styled as ‘Princess Catherine’.

As William was not the heir-apparent to the throne, the wedding was not a full state occasion, with many details left to the couple themselves to decide, such as much of the the guest list of about 1,900. It was, however, a public holiday in Britain and featured many ceremonial aspects, including use of the state carriages and roles for the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry. It was attended by most of the Royal Family, as well as many foreign royals, diplomats, and the couple’s chosen personal guests.

Middleton wore a white dress with a 270-centimetre (110 in) train, by British designer Sarah Burton, as well as a tiara lent to her by the Queen. William wore the uniform of his honorary rank of Colonel of the Regiment for the Irish Guards. William’s best man was his brother, Prince Harry, while the bride’s sister, Pippa, acted as her maid of honour. The wedding ceremony began at 11:00 am BST (UTC+1). The Dean of Westminster officiated most of the service, with the Archbishop of Canterbury conducting the marriage ceremony itself and the Bishop of London giving the sermon. A reading was also given by the bride’s brother, James. After the ceremony, the newly married couple travelled in procession to Buckingham Palace for the traditional appearance on the balcony and a fly past before crowds assembled in The Mall.

Following the wedding, the couple intend to continue residing on the Isle of Anglesey in North Wales, where Prince William is based as an RAF Search and Rescue pilot.

Engagement announcement

On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that Prince William, elder son of the Prince of Wales, was to marry his long-time girlfriend Catherine Middleton “in the Spring or Summer of 2011, in London”.They were engaged in October 2010 while on a private holiday in Kenya; William gave Middleton the same engagement ring that his father had given to William’s mother, Diana, Princess of Wales—an 18-carat white gold ring with a 12-carat oval sapphire and 14 round diamonds. It was announced at approximately the same time that, after their marriage, the couple will live on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, where Prince William is based with the Royal Air Force.

The Prince of Wales said he was “thrilled .they have been practising long enough”, and Queen Elizabeth II said she was “absolutely delighted” for the couple, giving her formal consent to the marriage, as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772, in her British privy council on the morning of the engagement. Congratulations also came in from the Queen’s prime ministers, including Prime Minister of Australia Julia Gillard, who has moderate republican leanings.The suffragan Bishop of Willesden, Pete Broadbent, who has known republican views, published a critical reaction to the wedding announcement on Facebook. He later acknowledged that his words were “offensive” and subsequently apologised, but his superior, Richard Chartres, Bishop of London, instructed him to withdraw from public ministry “until further notice”.

Following the announcement the couple gave an exclusive interview to ITV News political editor Tom Bradby and hosted a photocall at St. James’s Palace. On 12 December 2010, Buckingham Palace issued the official engagement photographs; these were taken on 25 November, in the state apartments at St. James’s Palace, by photographer Mario Testino.

The original engagement announcement stated simply that the wedding will be “in the spring or summer of 2011″. On 23 November 2010 the date of Friday 29 April 2011 was confirmed. It was later announced that the day will be declared a public holiday throughout the United Kingdom, formal confirmation being made by the Queen in Council on 15 December 2010.The wedding date has also been declared an official public holiday in Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Isle of Man, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, the Falkland Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos.

As 29 April falls six days before elections for the Scottish Parliament and the Alternative Vote referendum, this has attracted political comment.John Curtice, a professor of politics at the University of Strathclyde, stated for the Scottish elections that the date was “unfortunate” and was “likely to see the Royal Family getting caught up in political debate”.

Couple

Prince William is the elder son of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, and grandson of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. As such, he is second, behind his father, in the line of succession to the throne in 16 independent states known as the Commonwealth realms. William was educated at Ludgrove School, Eton College, and the University of St Andrews, after which he was commissioned as an officer from Sandhurst in the Blues and Royals regiment of the Household Cavalry. He later transferred to the RAF and went on to become a full-time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force at RAF Valley, Anglesey.

Catherine “Kate” Middleton is the eldest of three children born to Michael and Carole Middleton. She was educated at St Andrew’s School in Pangbourne, Marlborough College, and the University of St Andrews.After graduating, she worked in retail and then as an accessories buyer/catalogue photographer at her parents’ business. She is primarily of English descent, but with a few distant Scottish and French Huguenot ancestors. Her paternal family came from Leeds, West Yorkshire,while her mother’s maternal family, the Harrisons, were working-class labourers and miners from County Durham.

The couple met while undergraduates at the University of St Andrews, where they both lived at St Salvator’s Hall during their first year,after which they shared accommodation in the town for two years. They are fifteenth cousins—having Sir Thomas Fairfax and his wife, Agnes, as common ancestors—and are possibly twelfth cousins once removed, circumstantial evidence suggesting that they are both descended from Sir Thomas Leighton and Elizabeth Knollys.

On 23 November 2010, Clarence House announced the date for the wedding as 29 April 2011 (Feast Day of Saint Catherine of Siena) and the venue as Westminster Abbey, a Royal Peculiar founded in AD 960. Although the abbey has been the traditional location for coronations since 1066, it has only recently been the church of choice for royal weddings; prior to 1918, most royal weddings took place in the royal chapels such as the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace and St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. The abbey, which has a usual seating capacity of 2000, has been the venue for recent royal weddings, including those of Elizabeth II (then Princess Elizabeth) to Prince Philip (1947), Princess Margaret to Anthony Armstrong-Jones (1960), Princess Anne to Mark Phillips (1973), and Prince Andrew to Sarah Ferguson (1986).

Westminster Abbey is the place of coronations and many royal weddings

It was also announced that the costs of the wedding itself will be met by the Royal Family and the Middletons themselves, while the costs of security and transport will be covered by the British treasury. The couple have also asked that donations be made to charities in place of traditional wedding gifts; to that end, they established The Prince William and Miss Catherine Middleton Charitable Gift Fund, which focuses on assisting charities such as the New Zealand Christchurch Earthquake Appeal, the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary, the Royal Flying Doctor Service, and the Zoological Society of London. The most prominent accoutrement inside the Abbey for the ceremony was roughly a dozen 20-foot tall field maple trees arranged on either side of the main aisle.

Timings

At 6.00 am roads in and around the processional route were closed to traffic. From 8.15 am, the main congregation, governors-general, prime ministers of Commonwealth realms, and diplomats, all arrived at the Abbey. Princes William and Harry then left Clarence House at 10.10 am in a Bentley State Limousine, and arrived at 10.18 am, followed by representatives of foreign royal families, the Middleton family, and, lastly, the Prince’s own family (the Princess Royal, the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice of York, Princess Eugenie of York, the Earl and Countess of Wessex, Vice Admiral Timothy Laurence, the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall). By tradition, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were the last members of the Royal Family to leave Buckingham Palace, arriving at the Abbey for 10.48 am. The bridal party then left the Goring Hotel in the former Number one state Rolls-Royce Phantom VI at 10.52 am, in time for the service to begin at 11 am. The service finished at 12.15 pm, after which the newly married couple travelled to Buckingham Palace in a procession consisting of other royal family members, the parents of the groom and bride, the best man, and the bridesmaids. At 1.25 pm, the couple appeared on the balcony at Buckingham Palace to watch a fly-past consisting of Lancaster, Spitfire, and Hurricane aircraft from the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, followed by two Typhoons and two Tornado GR4s.

Ceremony

Route of the bride and groom to and from the wedding ceremony at Westminster Abbey

Route of the couple

The route of the bride and groom went between Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey, by The Mall, passing Clarence House, by Horse Guards Road, Horse Guards Parade, through Horse Guards Arch, Whitehall, the south side of Parliament Square, and Broad Sanctuary.

Wedding service

St James’s Palace announced on 5 January that the ceremony was to start at 11:00 local time and that the bride would arrive at the Abbey by car rather than by carriage (the latter is the traditional transport for royal brides.) The route was along The Mall, through Horse Guards Parade, and down Whitehall to the abbey. After the ceremony, the bridal couple returned along the same route by carriage to a reception hosted by the Queen at Buckingham Palace. The Prince of Wales hosted a private dinner in the evening, not attended by the Queen.

In a break with royal tradition, the groom had a best man—his brother, Prince Harry—rather than a supporter, while the bride chose her sister, Pippa, as maid of honour. There were four bridesmaids—Lady Louise Windsor, the seven-year old daughter of the Earl and Countess of Wessex; The Hon. Margarita Armstrong-Jones, the eight-year old daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Linley; Grace van Cutsem, the three-year old daughter of the couple’s friend Hugh van Cutsem (who put her hands over her ears during the Prince and Princess’s kiss on the balcony, due to the crowd noise), and Eliza Lopes the three-year old granddaughter of The Duchess of Cornwall. Two page boys participated: William Lowther-Pinkerton, the ten-year old son of William’s private secretary Major Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton, and Tom Pettifer, the eight-year old son of Princes William and Harry’s former nanny, “Tiggy” Pettifer.

The Dean of Westminster officiated for most of the service, with Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, conducting the marriage ceremony itself and Richard Chartres, the Bishop of London, giving the sermon. It has long been traditional for the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Church of England‘s most senior bishop, to officiate at the weddings of England’s monarchs and future monarchs, but as Chartres is a close friend of the Prince of Wales  he was invited to take part in the ceremony.

Liturgy and bridal vow

Kate did not promise to “obey” her new husband in her vows but instead to “love, comfort, honour and keep” him. The bridal couple used the Series One (1966) Book of Common Prayer ceremony.

The Lesson from the New Testament, Romans Chapter 12, verses 1–2 and 9–18, was read by the bride’s brother, James Middleton.

Music

The bride processed down the aisle to the anthem “I Was Glad,” written by by Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry, from Psalm 122. It was composed for the crowning of Prince William’s great-great-great grandfather, Edward VII, at Westminster Abbey in 1902.As the choir sang, the bride made her three-and-a-half minute procession through the Nave and Quire on her father’s arm, to meet the Prince. The recessional music was the orchestral march “Crown Imperial” by William Walton,which was also played at Charles and Diana’s wedding.

Choral compositions featured in the service were Parry’s Blest Pair of Sirens during the signing of the register, Paul Mealor‘s Ubi Caritas et Amor as the motet and a specially-commissioned anthem “This is the day which the Lord hath made” by John Rutter. The young Welsh composer Paul Mealor said he was thrilled to find out that his motet had been chosen for the ceremony. In the weeks before the wedding, there was some discussion in the music press of how Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, the Master of the Queen’s Music, was upset to have not been commissioned to compose for the service, although two of his instrumental pieces “Veni Creator Spiritus” and “Farewell to Stromness” were included in the music performed before the service.

Two choirs, one orchestra and a fanfare team performed the music at the wedding service of Prince William and Middleton at Westminster Abbey. These were the Westminster Abbey Choir, Chapel Royal Choir and London Chamber Orchestra, and a fanfare team of the Central Band of the Royal Air Force.

The choirs were directed by James O’Donnell, Organist and Master of the Choristers at Westminster Abbey. The Abbey’s Sub Organist, Robert Quinney, played the organ. The Organist, Choir Master and Composer at Her Majesty’s Chapel Royal is Andrew Gant. The London Chamber Orchestra was conducted by Christopher Warren-Green, who is its Music Director and Principal conductor.

The fanfares were performed under the direction of Wing Commander Duncan Stubbs,whose own composition, Valiant and Brave, was performed as the royal couple signed the wedding register. Preux et audicieux (which translates from French as “Valiant and Brave”) is the motto of 22 Squadron, in which Prince William is serving as a search and rescue pilot at RAF Valley in North Wales.

Hymns

William and Kate chose three of their favourite hymns: “Jerusalem”, and two others with a strong association with Wales. The first was the rousing “Guide me, O Thou Great Redeemer”. It is also known as the Welsh rugby anthem “Bread of Heaven,” and the Duke of Cambridge is the vice-royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union. It was sung at the funeral of Princess Diana, and is associated with Welsh Male Voice Choirs and Eisteddfodau, having been originally written in Welsh by 18th-century Methodist preacher William Williams.

The words to their second hymn, “Love Divine, All Loves Excelling” were written by 18th-century Methodist evangelical preacher Charles Wesley. Its tune – Blaenwern – was composed by a Welshman, William Penfro Rowlands, during the Welsh Christian revival of 1904–5. This hymn was sung at the Prince of Wales’ 2005 marriage to the Duchess of Cornwall.

The third hymn, also considered as an anthem, is “Jerusalem”. Based on the Romantic Era poem by the visionary 19th-century poet William Blake and music written in 1916 by Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry, it is “a favourite at Last Night of the Proms, the Women’s Institute and weddings.” The hymn’s triumphant final line urges building a new “Jerusalem in England’s green and pleasant land”.

Clothing

Couple sitting in a decorated horse-drawn open-top carriage, with two well-dressed guards sitting behind the newly-weds. The carriage is flanked on the far side by excited well-wishers

The couple return from the Abbey to the Palace in the 1902 State Landau

Bridal dress

The bridal dress was designed by English designer Sarah Burton at Alexander McQueen.It was made of satin and featured a lace applique bodice and skirt. The lace bodice design was hand-made using a technique that originated in Ireland in the 1820s called Carrickmacross, which involved cutting out the detailings of roses, thistles, daffodils and shamrocks and applying them to the ivory silk tulle individually. These lace appliques were hand-made by the Royal School of Needlework, based at Hampton Court Palace.

The bridal train measured 270 cm (8 ft 10 in), and along with the lace, all other fabrics used in the creation of the dress were sourced from and supplied by British companies. The lace motifs were pinned, “framed up” and applied with stab stitching every 2–3 mm around each one. Workers washed their hands every 30 minutes to keep the lace and threads pristine, and the needles were renewed every three hours, to keep them sharp and clean.

Bridal tiara and veil

The veil is held in place by a Cartier Scroll Tiara, made in 1936 and lent to Miss Middleton by the Queen. It was purchased by the Queen’s father, the Duke of York (subsequently King George VI) for his Duchess (later Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Mother) three weeks before succeeding his brother Edward VIII (Duke of Windsor) as King. Princess Elizabeth (now the Queen) received the tiara from her mother on her 18th birthday.

Designed by Shane Connolly, the bride’s shield-shaped wired bouquet contained myrtle, Lily of the Valley, Sweet William and hyacinth.

Groom’s uniform

Although William is a serving Royal Air Force flight lieutenant and also holds the equivalent Royal Navy rank of lieutenant and Army rank of captain, he chose instead to wear the full dress uniform of the Irish Guards displaying the rank of colonel. William has been entitled to wear this uniform since 10 February 2011 when he was appointed the honorary colonel of the Irish Guards.Additionally he wore the peaked hat of the Irish Guards, rather than the bearskin. As a Knight of the Order of the Garter, he wore the order’s blue riband, to which was affixed his RAF wings and Golden Jubilee Medal. The uniform was made and fitted by Kashket and Partners. William did not wear a sword as he was entering a church.

Family celebrations

The Queen hosted a lunchtime reception at Buckingham Palace, starting after the arrival carriage with the married couple. It was a private gathering for guests drawn from the congregation who represent the couple’s official and private lives. During the reception, the couple made an appearance on the Buckingham Palace balcony. The East front of the palace contains this well-known balcony on which the Royal Family traditionally congregate to greet crowds outside. Canapés were served at the reception. The Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales, Claire Jones, performed.The reception finished mid-afternoon.

After the reception, at 3.35pm William drove his new bride out of the palace back up the Mall for the short distance to Clarence House, his official London residence. The car, a two seat Aston Martin DB6 Volante (MkII convertible), had been decorated in the customary ‘newly wed’ style by the best man and friends; the rear number plate read “JU5TWED”. The Prince had changed out of his uniform; his wife was still wearing her wedding dress. The car had been given to Prince Charles by the Queen as a 21st birthday present. In a surprise organised by RAF Wattisham, the car was shadowed by a yellow RAF Sea King helicopter flying the RAF Ensign from its winch cable, marking William’s current service as a pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force.

The newly married couple and family appearing on the Buckingham Palace balcony

In the evening, The Prince of Wales will give a private dinner, followed by dancing, at Buckingham Palace for the couple and their close friends and family.

Guest list

On 16 and 17 February, three sets of guest lists were sent out in the name of the Queen. As William is not the heir apparent, the wedding is not a “state occasion”. Thus protocol has dictated that many guests (or their successors in office) who were invited to the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981 need not be invited to William’s wedding. More than half of the guests will be family and friends of the couple, though there will be a significant number of Commonwealth leaders (including the governors-general who represent the Queen in Commonwealth realms other than the UK, prime ministers of the Commonwealth realms, and heads of government of other Commonwealth countries), members of religious organisations, the diplomatic corps, several military officials, members of the British Royal Household, members of foreign royal families, and representatives of William’s charities and others with whom William has worked on official business. Although St James’s Palace declined to publish the names of those invited, a breakdown of guests was published by category−the list made no mention of foreign heads of state, though it was announced that about 40 members of foreign royal families had been invited.

The first list, consisting of about 1,900 people, is of attendees to the ceremony in the abbey. The second list of approximately 600 people is of those invited to the luncheon reception at Buckingham Palace, hosted by the Queen. The final list, containing about 300 names, is for the evening dinner hosted by the Prince of Wales.

On 19 April Sean Cardinal Brady, Primate of All Ireland said he will attend. The invitation to the event and its acceptance, have been described as “unprecedented” by a spokesman for Ireland’s Catholic bishops. The spokesman attributed the invitation to Cardinal Brady’s contribution to the Northern Ireland peace process.

Wedding cake

The wedding cake had a strong British floral theme, using elements of the Joseph Lambeth technique. It was a multi-tiered traditional fruit cake decorated with cream and white icing. The Lambeth technique is based on a style of decorating that was popular in England where chefs and decorators would use a lot of intricate piping to create 3-D scrollwork, leaves, flowers, and other decoration. The method is still popular today and is frequently used by wedding cake designers and decorators to create ornate wedding cakes. The cake designer Fiona Cairns was chosen in February 2011 to create the wedding cake. Furthermore, McVitie’s created a special cake from chocolate biscuit for the reception at Buckingham Palace. The chocolate biscuit cake was made from a Royal Family recipe and was specially requested by Prince William.

Broadcasting

The wedding was widely broadcast on television, internet, and radio. It was estimated that the coverage would be watched by two billion people worldwide. ITV, BBC,and CNN covered the ceremony and associated events live through the combined pool of footage from the BBC, Sky, and ITN to help cover the overall cost.In North America, which is five to nine hours behind British Summer Time, the wedding occurred during the time usually taken up by network breakfast television programmes, which expanded their normal length to allow for full coverage. NBC‘s Today began coverage at 4 am Eastern Time and partnered with ITV. ABC partnered with BBC, CBS has its own live London affiliates, and Fox partnered with Sky News. The CBC carried BBC coverage, while CTV had live coverage. Cable networks and radio also had live coverage. In Mexico, the wedding aired on Televisa and TV Azteca; all television stations in Mexico carrying the ceremony stayed on the air during the late night hours instead of normally signing off. The ABC also took the BBC feed in Australia, in addition with Pay TV UKTV. Coverage was also provided on the Seven Network, Nine Network and Network Ten. The ABC had planned to produce alternative commentary with The Chaser, but in response to these plans, the BBC barred the use of its footage for such a purpose, on orders from Clarence House. The royal wedding was also streamed live online on YouTube via The Royal Channel. In Serbia the wedding was broadcast on Radio Television of Serbia and B92 Info, while in China CCTV News and Phoenix Info News did so. In Portugal, the wedding was covered by RTP and TVI. The wedding was also widely followed through various cable and local channels in India and Pakistan.

Viewership of the wedding was recorded by electricity use in Ontario, where, at the approximate moment Middleton arrived at Westminster Abbey, the Independent Electricity System Operator recorded a 300 megawatt drop in electricity use, which was attributed to “people going about their normal morning routines [stopping] whatever they were doing, rather than make breakfast or shower, and watch the TV”.

Tributes outside the United Kingdom

In the United States, the Empire State Building in New York City will be lit in red, white, and blue, the colours of the Union Flag, which are also the colours of the United States, at sunset to mark the wedding. This will mark the second time in less than 12 months the Empire State Building will honour a member of the Royal Family; the previous July, it honoured the Queen and Prince Philip during their visit to New York City. The international Peace Bridge across the Niagara River between the U.S. and Canada at Buffalo, New York, and Fort Erie, Ontario, was lit in red, blue and gold, the colours of the royal crest.

Wedding ring

The wedding ring of Catherine is made from Welsh gold. The ring was created by the royal warrant holder Wartski, a company with roots in Bangor, Gwynedd, north Wales.Since 1923, it has been a tradition in the royal family to use Welsh gold for the wedding ring of the bride. This ring was made from a small amount of gold that had been kept in the royal vaults since it was presented to Queen Elizabeth II. It was mined from the Clogau Gold Mine in the Welsh mountains, not far from Anglesey, where the couple live. The Clogau Gold Mine had its heyday in the late nineteenth century, was abandoned in the early twentieth century, was reopened in 1992 and finally closed in 1998. The Queen had “given a piece of the gold that has been in the family for many years to Prince William as a gift,” a palace source stated.[104] Unlike Middleton, Prince William did not wear a wedding ring.

Title upon marriage

On the morning of the wedding, William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. This is in line with the practice of granting titles upon marriage to royal princes who did not already have one (for example, Prince Andrew, who was created Duke of York when he married in 1986.)In a break with precedent Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex; at the same time it was announced that he will be given the title Duke of Edinburgh when that title, currently held by his father, reverts to the Crown. A December 2010 article in The Daily Telegraph suggested that William did not wish to receive a dukedom, preferring to remain simply “Prince William” while also wanting Middleton to become “Princess Catherine”. It was suggested that this caused a dilemma for the Queen because princesses traditionally receive such titles through birth instead of marriage. Prior to the announcement, other possible dukedoms it was thought William might receive included Sussex, Windsor, Clarence, Kendal, Avondale, and Strathearn.

Official merchandise and currency

Prince William and Kate Middleton have personally approved an official range of china (including handmade plates, cups and pill boxes) to be made for the Royal Collection and sold as souvenirs from December 2010.The items are decorated with the intertwined initials of the couple, under the prince’s coronet, and include the wording “To celebrate the marriage of Prince William of Wales and Catherine Middleton 29 April 2011.” The Lord Chamberlain‘s office approved a longer list of memorabilia, including official mugs, plates, biscuit tins and porcelain pill pots. The document also clarified the use of William’s coat of arms and pictures of the couple on such memorabilia. Initially, the Palace refused to sanction official tea-towels, which, along with aprons, T-shirts and cushions, were deemed, ‘in poor taste’. However, the restriction on tea towels, though not the other items, was later reversed.Sales of merchandising are expected to reach £44 million.

To mark the engagement of William and Catherine, the Royal Mint produced an official £5 coin, showing the couple in profile, while the Royal Australian Mint issued a series of circulation and collectable coins designed by Stuart Devlin.The Royal Canadian Mint will release a series of coins and Canada Post will be issuing a stamp, approved by Clarence House, in commemoration of the wedding.

Reactions

Union Flags on Regent Street

An April 2011 poll of 2,000 British adults found that 35% of the public intended to watch the wedding on television while an equal proportion planned to ignore the event altogether. According to their reported plans, women were more than twice as likely (47%) to watch the event as men (23%).

There were over 850 applications to hold royal wedding street parties in London, and about 5,500 across England and Wales.The anti-monarchy campaign group Republic held an alternative street party in Holborn.The event had initially been blocked by Camden Council.

Threats

The royal wedding has been subject to threats of violence and disruption. In February, security agencies, including MI5, identified “dissident Irish republican groups” as possible threats. The group Muslims Against Crusades announced plans for a “forceful demonstration” at the wedding, calling the Royal Family “enemies to Allah and his messenger”. They later announced the abandonment of their planned protest.

Arrests

Sixty people arrested at the TUC rally on the March for the Alternative have bail conditions that prevent them entering central London over the wedding period.

On 28 April 2011, Chris Knight and two others were arrested “on suspicion of conspiracy to cause public nuisance and breach of the peace”. The three were planning a mock execution of Prince Andrew in central London on the following day, to coincide with the wedding.

On 29 April 2011, the police made “pre-emptive” strikes, applying blanket stop and search powers and arresting 52 people. This included 13 arrested people in possession of climbing equipment and anti-monarchy placards. 5 were arrested entering Starbucks, “on suspicion of planning a breach of the peace”.

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

the video :

Prince Harry of Wales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prince Harry
Full name
Henry Charles Albert David
House House of Windsor
Father Charles, Prince of Wales
Mother Diana, Princess of Wales
Born 15 September 1984 (1984-09-15) (age 26)
St Mary’s Hospital, London

Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984), commonly known as Prince Harry, is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and grandson of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. As such, he is third in the line of succession (behind his father and elder brother) to the thrones of sixteen independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Consequently, he is also third in line, again behind his father and elder brother, to the position of Head of the Commonwealth (figurehead of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations) and Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

After an education at various schools around the United Kingdom and spending parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho, Harry, unlike his elder brother, Prince William, eschewed a university education in favour of following in the footsteps of various royal men by enrolling in the military. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Blues and Royals of the Household Cavalry Regiment—serving temporarily with his brother—and completed his training as a tank commander. He served for 77 days on the front line in the Afghan War, although he was pulled out following publication of the story in an Australian magazine.

Early life

The Royal Family of the
United Kingdom
and the
other Commonwealth realms
Badge of the House of Windsor.svg
HM The Queen
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh

Harry was born at St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, London, England, on 15 September 1984, weighing 6 lb 15oz. He is the second child of Prince Charles, and the late Diana, Princess of Wales, younger brother of Prince William, and fourth grandchild of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip. On 21 December 1984, he was baptised at St George’s Chapel, in Windsor Castle, by then Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, Harry’s godparents were the Prince Andrew (his paternal uncle); the Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones (his paternal cousin); the Lady Vestey; Mrs William Bartholomew; Bryan Organ; and Gerald Ward.

Persistent suggestions, based on a similarity of hair colour, have been made that Harry’s father is not Charles but James Hewitt, with whom Diana had an affair. However, red hair is known to be a Spencer family trait, and Hewitt stated to the press in 2002 that Harry had already been born by the time his affair with Diana began, a statement corroborated by Diana’s police bodyguard.

Diana wanted William and Harry to have a broader range of experiences than previous royal children and took both to venues that ranged from Disney World and McDonald’s to AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless.[8] Diana, Princess of Wales, who was by then divorced from the Prince of Wales, died in a car accident in 1997. Harry, his brother and their father were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time, and the Prince of Wales waited until early the following morning to tell his sons about their mother’s death. At his mother’s funeral, Harry accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather, and maternal uncle in walking behind the funeral cortège from Kensington Palace to Westminster Abbey.

Education

Like his father and elder brother, Harry was educated at “public schools“, starting at Jane Mynors’ nursery schooland the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School, and, after passing the entrance exams, was admitted to Eton College, where he studied geography, art history, and art at A-Level. The decision to place Harry in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun (Harry’s grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended); it did, however, make the Prince follow in the Spencer family footsteps, as both Diana’s father and brother had attended Eton. In June 2003, he completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels, obtaining a B in art, and a D in geography, having decided to drop history of art after AS level. He excelled in sports, however, developing his love for sports, particularly polo and rugby union.

After graduation, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia, working (as his father had done in his youth) on a cattle station and participating in the Young England vs Young Australia Polo Test Match. He also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom and holidayed in Argentina.

Royal duties and career

Prince Harry began to accompany his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas royal tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985. The earlier decision made by the Princess of Wales to take an infant William to Australia set the precedent for young royal children going on official visits. Harry then accompanied either both parents or his father on subsequent tours, though he did not begin solo official engagements until after his military training and active service; In August 1995, at the age of 10, Prince Harry attended the 50th anniversary of Victory over Japan Day at the Cenotaph in London, there he saluted the officers in the military parade, one of the most important ceremonies in the royal family agenda; in 2008, he began to undertake royal visits to schools and organisations in Wales.

Military career

Prince Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company. Within a year, in April 2006, Harry completed his officer’s training and was commissioned as a Cornet in the Blues and Royals, a regiment of the Household Cavalry in the British Army. By April 2008, whereupon he reached two years’ seniority, Harry was promoted to the rank of lieutenant.

Officer Cadet Wales (standing to attention next to the horse) on parade at Sandhurst, 21 June 2005

The British Ministry of Defence and Clarence House made a joint announcement on 22 February 2007 that Prince Harry would be deployed with his regiment to the front line in Iraq, to serve as part of the 1st Mechanised Brigade of the 3rd Mechanised Division – a move supported by Harry, who had stated that he would leave the army if he was told to remain in safety while his regiment went to war; he said: “There’s no way I’m going to put myself through Sandhurst and then sit on my arse back home while my boys are out fighting for their country.” Then head of the British army, General Sir Richard Dannatt, first said on 30 April 2007 that he had personally decided that the Prince would serve with his unit in Iraq, and Harry was scheduled for deployment in May or June 2007, to patrol the Maysan province. By 16 May, however, Dannatt announced that Prince Harry would not serve in Iraq; concerns included Harry being a high-value target (as several threats by various groups have already been made against him) and the dangers the soldiers around him would face should any attempt be made on the Prince’s life or capture. Clarence House made public the Prince’s disappointment with the decision, though he said he would abide by it. In May 2007, British soldiers in Iraq were reported to be wearing t-shirts bearing the statement “I’m Harry!”; a reference to the scene in the movie Spartacus in which the survivors of Spartacus’s army, defeated by Roman legions, are offered leniency by Crassus if they will identify their leader. Every survivor declares: “I’m Spartacus!”

It was reported, in early June 2007, that Prince Harry had arrived in Canada to train, alongside other soldiers of the Canadian Forces and British Army, at Canadian Forces base Suffield, near Medicine Hat, Alberta. It was said that this was in preparation for a tour of duty in Afghanistan, where Canadian and British forces were participating in the NATO led Afghan War; rumours that were confirmed in February the following year, when the British Ministry of Defence revealed that Harry had secretly been deployed as a Forward Air Controller to Helmand Province in the Asian country. The revelation came after the media – notably, the German newspaper Bild and Australian magazine New Idea– breached the blackout placed over the information by the Canadian and British authorities. It was later reported that, while in Afghanistan, Harry had called in United States Air Force air strikes, helped Gurkha troops repel an attack from Taliban insurgents, and performed patrol duty in hostile areas. His tour came 735 years after his ancestor, Edward I of England (then Prince Edward), had also been on military duty in the Middle East during the Ninth crusade, and also made Harry the first member of the Royal Family to have served in a war zone since his uncle, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, flew helicopters during the Falklands War; at the time, Andrew was second in line to the thrones of the Commonwealth realms. For his service, Prince Harry was decorated with the Operational Service Medal for Afghanistan by his aunt, the Princess Royal, at the Combermere Barracks in May 2008.

In October 2008, the news was revealed that Prince Harry was to follow his brother, father, and uncle with the wish to fly military helicopters. After passing the initial aptitude test, he was to undertake a month-long course; depending on whether or not he passed that course he would proceed onto full flight training in early 2009. Harry had to pass his flying assessment at the Army Air Corps Base (AAC), Middle Wallop, the result of which determined if he would pass on to train as a pilot of either the Apache, Lynx, or Gazelle helicopter.

Prince Harry was presented with his flying brevet (wings) by his father, on 7 May 2010 at a ceremony at the Army Air Corps Base (AAC), Middle Wallop. Prince Harry had also let it be known that he intended to fly Apache attack helicopters if he was successful in passing the rigorous Apache training course; after which time it could be possible for him to see active military service once again on the frontline in one of the warzones. During the ceremony, he switched his Blues and Royals‘ Officer’s Service Dress cap for that of the Army Air Corps’ sky blue beret with a Blues and Royals badge.

On 10 March 2011, it was revealed that Prince Harry had passed his Apache flying test and he was awarded his Apache Flying Badge on 14 April 2011. There is speculation that he shall return to Afghanistan once again before the withdrawal in 2015. On 16 April 2011 it was announced that Prince Harry had been promoted to the Army rank of Captain after having held the rank of Lieutenant since 2008.

Royal duties

Royal Monogram

Prince Harry (on left) with Prince William in 2009.

At the age of 23, Prince Harry was appointed as a Counsellor of State, and began his royal duties by first serving in that capacity when the Queen was abroad to attend the 2005 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Malta. The following year, Harry was in Lesotho to visit again Mants’ase Children’s Home near Mohale’s Hoek (which he first toured in 2004), and along with Prince Seeiso of Lesotho launched Sentebale: The Princes’ Fund for Lesotho, a charity to aid children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. He has also granted his patronage to a number of other organisations, including WellChild, Dolen Cymru, and MapAction. To aid Sentebale, as well as the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund and Centrepoint, Harry and his brother organised the Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium, on 1 July 2007.

Sports have also been a way that Harry has helped charities and other organisations, such as when he trained as a Rugby Development Officer for the Rugby Football Union in 2004 and then coached students in schools in order to encourage them to learn the sport. He has also participated in polo matches, like his brother and father, in order to raise money for charitable causes.

On 6 January 2009, Harry and his brother Prince William were granted their own royal household by their grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II. It has three main staff members, supported by a “small” team. Sir David Manning, the former British ambassador to Washington, will work as a part-time adviser to the princes. Previously, William and Harry’s affairs had been handled by the office of their father at Clarence House in central London. The brothers’ new household released a statement – complete with their own cyphers at the top – announcing that they have established their own office at nearby St. James’s Palace to look after their public, military and charitable activities. Harry’s cypher is similar to his brother’s, but displays an H in a shade of blue similar to that used by his mother.

Personal life and relationships

Prince Harry has spent much of his free time in sporting activities, playing competitive polo, as well as skiing and motocross. Harry also earned a reputation in his youth for being rebellious, leading the tabloid press to label him as a “wild child“. He was found at age 17 smoking cannabis and partaking in under-age drinking with his friends, would clash physically with paparazzi outside nightclubs, and was photographed at Highgrove House at a “Colonial and Native” themed costume party wearing a Nazi German Afrika Korps uniform with a swastika armband.He later issued a public statement apologizing for his behaviour.

Prince Harry is a supporter of Arsenal Football Club.

In January 2009, the British tabloid News of the World revealed a video made by Harry three years previously, in which he referred to a Pakistani fellow officer cadet as “our little Paki friend” and later called a soldier wearing a cloth on his head a “raghead“. These terms were described by David Cameron as “unacceptable”, and by The Daily Telegraph as “racist”, and a British Muslim youth organisation called the Prince a “thug”, a statement that was later retracted. Clarence House immediately issued an apology from Harry, who stated that no malice was intended in his remarks.While the cadet’s father refused to accept Harry’s apology, a former British MP and Royal Marine, Rod Richards, said that such nicknames were common amongst military comrades, stating “in the Armed Forces people often used to call me Taffy. Others were called Yankie, Oz or Kiwi or whatever. I consider Paki as an abbreviation for Pakistani. I don’t think on this occasion it was intended to be offensive.” It later emerged that Prince Harry had personally apologised to the soldier.

While Harry’s personal relationships have not been followed as much as those of his brother; most media attention has been focused on his relationship with Chelsy Davy. In an interview conducted for his 21st birthday, Harry referred to Davy as his girlfriend, and the press reported at that time that the couple had been together for 18 months, contradicting earlier reports that they were no longer together. Harry and Davy were also seen together publicly at the Concert for Diana. Chelsy also accompanied Harry to the wedding of Harry’s cousin, Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly in May 2008, where she was introduced to the Queen for the first time. But, in early 2009 it was reported in the media that the pair had parted ways,later that year the pair were photographed together at a rugby match, seemingly going public again with their relationship. But in mid 2010, it was reported that Harry and Chelsy had separated once again, causing Chelsy to leave England and returning home to South Africa. However, in early 2011, there were many reports stating that Harry and Chelsy were back together.

Titles, styles, honours, arms

Titles and styles

Royal styles of
HRH Prince Henry of Wales
Arms of Henry of Wales.svg
Reference style His Royal Highness
Spoken style Your Royal Highness
Alternative style Sir
  • 15 September 1984 – : His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales

The Prince’s style and title in full: His Royal Highness Prince Henry Charles Albert David of Wales. As a British prince, Harry holds no surname; however, as with the other male-line grandchildren of Elizabeth II, he uses the name of the area over which his father holds title, i.e. Wales (as Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie use York, per their father, Prince Andrew, Duke of York). Past precedent is that such surnames are dropped from usage in adulthood, after which either title alone, or Mountbatten-Windsor is used when necessary. If his father succeeds to the throne he will be known as His Royal Highness The Prince Henry. Traditionally, male-line members of British royalty receive a dukedom upon their marriage, the most recent being Prince William of Wales, who became Duke of Cambridge.

Military ranks

Honours

Medals

Honorary military appointments

Canada Canada
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Arms

Arms of Prince Harry of Wales
Notes
On his 18th birthday, Prince Harry was granted his own personal coat of arms, consisting of the arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom with a label for difference.
Coat of Arms of Henry of Wales.svg
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langed azure 2nd or a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent
Other elements
The whole differenced by a Label of five points Argent the first, third and fifth points charged with an Escallop Gules
Symbolism
As the grandchild of the sovereign, Prince Harry’s coat of arms has a label of five points. The escallops (seashells) allude to his late mother Diana, Princess of Wales, whose Spencer coat of arms includes three escallops argent.

Ancestry

Ancestors of Prince Harry of Wales
16. King George I of Greece
8. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
17. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia
4. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark
18. Prince Louis of Battenberg
9. Princess Alice of Battenberg
19. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
2. Charles, Prince of Wales
20. King George V of the United Kingdom
10. King George VI of the United Kingdom
21. Princess Mary of Teck
5. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
22. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
11. Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
23. Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck
1. Prince Harry of Wales
24. Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer
12. Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer
25. Margaret Baring
6. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
26. James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn
13. Cynthia Elinor Hamilton
27. Rosalind Cecilia Bingham
3. Diana Spencer
28. James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy
14. Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy
29. Frances Work
7. Frances Ruth Burke Roche
30. William Smith Gill
15. Ruth Sylvia Gill
31. Ruth Littlejohn

Through his paternal grandfather, Prince Harry is descended from King Henry IV, King Charles II and King James II and VII. Through his mother, Harry is of English descent and of remote Irish and Scottish descent.

Prince Harry is descended from the kings and queens of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom with surviving offspring from William I. He is also descended from many of the pre-Union monarchs of Scotland and the pre-Conquest monarchs of England.

Manfaat Anggur

Energi 5 Elemen dan Rahasia Kesehatan Anggur

Rahasia Energi Sehat 5 Elemen dan Manfaat Anggur Hitam, Merah, dan Hijau

Oleh : Aleysius H. Gondosari

Dalam tulisan hari ini, kita akan membahas manfaat dan rahasia kesehatan anggur hitam, merah, dan hijau. Anggur ada yang berbiji dan ada yang tidak berbiji. Anggur berbiji umumnya lebih bermanfaat dari anggur tanpa biji, karena anggur tanpa biji sudah mengalami rekayasa genetika.

Ada yang mengatakan bahwa buah anggur segar bermanfaat untuk bisa tidur nyenyak. Memang pada umumnya buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran bisa membantu kita untuk tidur lebih nyenyak. Analisa dari energi 5 Elemen menunjukkan bahwa buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran mempunyai frekuensi sehat dari 1/2 Hz sampai dengan 1/7 Hz. Jadi hal ini akan membantu otak menjadi tidak stres, lebih santai dan rileks. Makanan yang paling cocok untuk otak agar sehat dan tidak stres adalah makanan dengan frekuensi sehat 1/5 Hz, 1/6 Hz, dan 1/7 Hz.

Analisa Energi Sehat 5 Elemen terhadap Anggur:

Analisa energi 5 Elemen menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi sehat anggur ada pada 1/2 Hz. Hal ini berarti anggur terutama bermanfaat untuk organ-organ elemen Air seperti darah, pankreas, ginjal, dan reproduksi. Anggur hitam bermanfaat untuk organ ginjal dan pankreas. Sedangkan anggur merah dan anggur hijau bermanfaat untuk ginjal.

Indeks Manfaat dan Indeks Kecocokan dari Anggur untuk Ginjal dan Pankreas:

Anggur Hitam:

Organ ginjal: Indeks Manfaat =  +15  , Indeks Kecocokan =+50%

Organ pankreas: Indeks Manfaat = +10, Indeks Kecocokan = +30%

Anggur Merah:

Organ ginjal: Indeks Manfaat =  +10, Indeks Kecocokan = +30%

Anggur Hijau:

Organ ginjal: Indeks Manfaat = +5, Indeks Kecocokan = +15%

Organ Ginjal dan Asam Urat:

Makanan sehat untuk organ ginjal juga akan membantu mengurangi asam urat. Jadi anggur juga bermanfaat bagi kesehatan penderita sakit ginjal, asam urat, dan radang sendi.

Organ Pankreas dan Diabetes:

Makanan sehat untuk pankreas juga akan membantu mengurangi kadar gula darah yang tinggi. Jadi anggur hitam juga bermanfaat bagi kesehatan penderita diabetes.

Hari PASKAH / EASTER

Paskah (bahasa Yunani: Πάσχα atau Paskha) adalah perayaan terpenting dalam tahun liturgi gerejawi Kristen. Bagi umat Kristen, Paskah identik dengan Yesus, yang oleh Paulus disebut sebagai “anak domba Paskah”; jemaat Kristen hingga saat ini percaya bahwa Yesus disalibkan, mati dan dikuburkan, dan pada hari yang ketiga  bangkit dari antara orang mati. Paskah merayakan hari kebangkitan tersebut dan merupakan perayaan yang terpenting karena memperingati peristiwa yang paling sakral dalam hidup Yesus.

Paskah juga merujuk pada masa di dalam kalender gereja yang disebut masa Paskah, yaitu masa yang dirayakan dulu selama empat puluh hari sejak Minggu Paskah (puncak dari Pekan Suci) hingga hari Kenaikan Yesus namun sekarang masa tersebut diperpanjang hingga lima puluh hari, yaitu sampai dengan hari Pentakosta (yang artinya “hari kelima puluh” – hari ke-50 setelah Paskah, terjadi peristiwa turunnya Roh Kudus). Minggu pertama di dalam masa Paskah dinamakan Oktaf Paskah oleh Gereja Katolik Roma. Hari Paskah juga mengakhiri perayaan Pra-Paskah yang dimulai sejak empat puluh hari sebelum Kamis Putih, yaitu masa-masa berdoa, penyesalan, dan persiapan berkabung.

Paskah merupakan salah satu hari raya yang berubah-ubah tanggalnya (dalam kekristenan disebut dengan perayaan yang berpindah) karena disesuaikan dengan hari tertentu (dalam hal ini hari Minggu), bukan tanggal tertentu di dalam kalender sipil. Hari raya-hari raya Kristen lainnya tanggalnya disesuaikan dengan hari Paskah tersebut dengan menggunakan sebuah formula kompleks. Paskah biasanya dirayakan antara akhir bulan Maret hingga akhir bulan April (ritus Barat) atau awal bulan April hingga awal bulan Mei (ritus Timur) setiap tahunnya, tergantung kepada siklus bulan. Setelah ratusan tahun gereja-gereja tidak mencapai suatu kesepakatan, saat ini semua gereja telah menerima perhitungan Gereja Aleksandria (sekarang disebut Gereja Koptik) yang menentukan bahwa hari Paskah jatuh pada hari Minggu pertama setelah Bulan Purnama Paskah, yaitu bulan purnama pertama yang hari keempat belasnya (“bulan purnama” gerejawi) jatuh pada atau setelah 21 Maret (titik Musim Semi Matahari/vernal equinox gerejawi)

Minggu Paskah bukan perayaan yang sama (namun masih berhubungan) dengan Paskah Yahudi (bahasa Ibrani: פסח atau Pesakhdalam hal simbolisme dan juga penanggalannya. Bahasa Indonesia tidak memiliki istilah yang berbeda untuk Paskah Pesakh (Yahudi) dan Paskah Paskha (Kristen) sebagaimana beberapa bahasa Eropa yang mempunyai dua istilah yang berbeda, oleh sebab itu kata Paskah dapat memiliki dua arti yang berbeda di dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Banyak elemen budaya, termasuk kelinci Paskah dan telur Paskah, telah menjadi bagian dari perayaan Paskah modern, dan elemen-elemen tersebut biasa dirayakan oleh umat Kristen maupun non-Kristen.

Paskah dalam kekristenan

Agama Kristen

Yesus Kristus
Kelahiran · Kematian · Kebangkitan ·
Natal · Jumat Agung · Paskah
Dasar
Gereja · Injil · Kerajaan ·
Rasul: Paulus · Petrus
Alkitab
Perjanjian Baru · Perjanjian Lama · Kanon · Deuterokanonika
Teologi
Allah Bapa · Allah Putra · Allah Roh Kudus
Trinitas · Keselamatan · Baptisan · Maria ·
Ajaran
Sepuluh Perintah Allah · Hukum Kasih · Amanat Agung ·
Kotbah di Bukit: Ucapan Berbahagia · Doa Bapa Kami
Sejarah Kekristenan
Gereja mula-mula · Konsili ·
Pengakuan iman · Misi · Skisma Timur-Barat ·
Perang Salib · Reformasi · Kontra Reformasi
Denominasi Kristen
Katolik
Gereja Katolik
Protestan
Lutheran · Calvinis · Anglikan · Anabaptis · Baptis · Methodis · Adventis · Injili · Pentakostal
Ortodoks
Ortodoks Timur · Ortodoks Oriental (Miaphysite) · Asiria
Topik terkait
Khotbah · Doa · Ekumenisme · Gerakan ·
Seni · Musik · Liturgi · Kalender · Simbol · Kritik
P christianity.svg Portal Kristen

Kotak ini: lihat • bicara • sunting

The Resurrection“, Johann Heinrich Tischbein, 1778.

Paskah merupakan perayaan tertua di dalam gereja Kristen, penghubung antara Perjanjian Lama dan Perjanjian Baru. Paus Leo Agung (440-461) menekankan pentingnya Paskah dan menyebutnya festum festorum – perayaan dari semua perayaan, dan berkata bahwa Natal hanya dirayakan untuk mempersiapkan perayaan Paskah.

Menurut tradisi Sinoptik, Paskah menunjuk pada Perjamuan Kudus, yang didasari dari Perjamuan Malam, perjamuan perpisahan antara Yesus dan murid-murid Yesus. Pada malam itu sebelum Yesus dihukum mati, Yesus memberikan makna baru bagi Paskah Yahudi. Roti dilambangkan sebagai tubuh Yesus dan anggur dilambangkan sebagai darah Yesus, yaitu perlambangan diri Yesus sebagai korban Paskah. Rasul Yohanes dan Pauluslah yang mengaitkan kematian Yesus sebagai penggenapan Paskah Perjanjian Lama (Yesus wafat pada saat domba-domba Paskah Yahudi dikorbankan di kenisah atau Bait Allah). Kematian dan kebangkitan Yesus inilah yang kemudian diasosiasikan dengan istilah Paskah dalam kekristenan.

Karena Paskah dirayakan oleh gereja-gereja Kristen dengan suatu sakramen Ekaristi/Perjamuan Kudus, maka sakramen tersebut dapat pula disebut sebagai Perjamuan Paskah Kristen, atau Perjamuan Kudus Jumat Agung, yang berbeda dari Perjamuan Paskah Yahudi. Banyak gereja Kristen saat ini merayakan perjamuan tersebut lebih dari setahun sekali agar jemaat gereja selalu diingatkan akan peristiwa Paskah.

Di dalam Perjanjian Lama dan Perjanjian Baru, kata Paskah disebutkan sebanyak 80 kali dalam 72 ayat sementara di dalam terjemahan BIS disebutkan sebanyak 86 kali dalam 77 ayat.

Paskah pada gereja mula-mula

Sebuah fresko (gambar dinding) yang menggambarkan kisah kebangkitan; karya Fra Angelico, di Florence, Italia.

Gereja mula-mula memperingati peristiwa kebangkitan Yesus dengan perjamuan sederhana dan berdoa. Kemudian dalam perjalanan misinya, Paulus terus mengingatkan jemaat gereja mula-mula akan pentingnya peristiwa kebangkitan Yesusdan perkataan Yesus pada waktu Perjamuan Malam Terakhir. Sumber yang paling awal yang menulis tentang Paskah adalah Melito dari Sardis yang menulis homili berjudul Peri Pascha (Tentang Paskah) Orang-orang Kristen pada zaman tersebut menapak tilas jalan salib (Via Dolorosa) yang dilalui oleh Tuhan Yesus. Kematiannya diperingati sebagai korban keselamatan dalam tradisi Yahudi (bahasa Ibrani: Zerah Syelamin).

Orang Kristen Yahudi terus merayakan Paskah Yahudi, namun mereka tidak lagi mengorbankan domba Paskah karena Kristus dianggap sebagai korban Paskah yang sejati. Perayaan ini diawali dengan berpuasa hingga Jumat jam 3 sore (ada yang melanjutkan hingga pagi Paskah). Perbedaan timbul di seputar tanggal Paskah. Orang Kristen Yahudi dan jemaat provinsi Asia merayakannya pada hari yang bersamaan dengan Paskah Yahudi, yaitu sehari setelah tanggal 14 Nisan (bulan pertama) menurut kalender mereka – kematian Yesus pada 15 Nisan dan kebangkitan Yesus pada 17 Nisan – tanpa memedulikan harinya; namun orang Kristen non-Yahudi yang tinggal di Kekaisaran Romawi dan juga gereja di Roma dan Aleksandria merayakannya pada hari pertama, yaitu hari Minggu – hari kebangkitan Yesus, tanpa memedulikan tanggalnya. Metode yang kedua inilah yang akhirnya lebih banyak digunakan di gereja, dan penganut metode yang pertama perlahan-lahan mulai tergusur. Uskup Viktor dari Roma pada akhir abad ke-2 menyatakan perayaan menurut tanggal 14 Nisan adalah bidat dan mengucilkan semua pengikutnya. Beberapa metode penghitungan yang lain di antaranya oleh beberapa uskup di Galia yang menghitung Paskah berdasarkan tanggal tertentu sesuai kalender Romawi, yaitu 25 Maret memperingati kematian Yesus dan 27 Maret memperingati kematian Yesuskarena sejak abad ke-3 tanggal 25 Maret dianggap sebagai tanggal penyaliban. Namun metode yang terakhir ini tidak digunakan lama. Banyak kalender di Abad Pertengahan yang mencatat tanggal perayaan ini (25 dan 27 Maret) untuk alasan historis, bukan liturgis. Kaum Montanis di Asia Minor merayakan Paskah pada hari Minggu pertama setelah 6 April. Berbagai variasi perhitungan tanggal Paskah tersebut terus berlangsung hingga abad ke-4.

Perselisihan seputar penghitungan hari Minggu Paskah yang tepat tersebut akhirnya dibahas secara resmi pada Konsili Nicea I pada tahun 325 yang memutuskan bahwa hari Paskah adalah hari Minggu, namun tidak mematok hari Minggu tertentu. Kelompok yang merayakan Paskah dengan perhitungan Yahudi dinamakan “Quartodeciman” (bahasa Latin untuk 14) (Nisan) dan dikucilkan dari gereja. Uskup Aleksandria kemudian ditugaskan untuk mencari cara menghitung tanggal Paskah, karena kota itu dianggap sebagai otoritas tertinggi untuk hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan astronomi, dan sang uskup diharapkan dapat memutuskan hasilnya untuk diikuti keuskupan-keuskupan yang lain. Namun hasil yang diperoleh tidak memuaskan, terutama untuk gereja-gereja Latin. Banyak gereja masih memakai cara mereka sendiri-sendiri, termasuk gereja di Roma. Akhirnya baru pada abad ke-7 gereja-gereja berhasil mencapai kesepakatan mengenai perhitungan tanggal Minggu Paskah. (lebih lanjut lihat #Tanggal Paskah)

Paskah menurut kalender liturgi

Tahun Liturgi
Gereja Ritus Barat
Gereja Ritus Timur
Kotak ini: lihat • bicara • sunting

Pada kekristenan ritus Latin (Barat), Paskah menandai berakhirnya masa Pra-Paskah, yaitu 40 hari (tidak termasuk hari Minggu) menjelang Minggu Paskah. Sepekan sebelum Minggu Paskah disebut sebagai Pekan Suci. Hari Minggu sebelum Minggu Paskah, yaitu hari pertama Pekan Suci, adalah hari Minggu Palem yang memperingati masuknya Yesus ke kota Yerusalem menaiki seekor keledai. Tiga hari terakhir sebelum Minggu Paskah disebut sebagai Kamis Putih atau Kamis Suci, Jumat Agung, dan Sabtu Suci atau Sabtu Sunyi, yang ketiganya sering disebut sebagai Trihari Suci atau Triduum Paskah; Kamis Putih memperingati Perjamuan Malam terakhir Yesus, Jumat Agung memperingati kematian Yesus, dan Sabtu Suci memperingati hari pada saat Yesus di dalam kuburan.

Banyak gereja yang mulai merayakan Paskah semalam sebelumnya, yaitu dengan kebaktian Malam Paskah. Pada beberapa negara, Minggu Paskah dirayakan selama dua hari hingga Senin Paskah, dan hari-hari dalam sepekan setelah Minggu Paskah, yang disebut dengan Pekan Paskah, masing-masing diberi akhiran Paskah, seperti “Selasa Paskah”, “Rabu Paskah”, hingga Oktaf Paskah, yaitu hari Minggu setelah Minggu Paskah. 40 hari (yang kemudian diperpanjang menjadi 50 hari atau 7 minggu) setelah Paskah biasa disebut dengan masa Paskah yang diakhiri dengan hari Pentakosta (hari ke-50).

Pada kekristenan ritus Oriental (Timur), masa persiapan Paskah dikenal dengan nama masa Puasa Besar dan dimulai sejak Senin Bersih selama 40 hari (termasuk hari Minggu). Pekan terakhir dalam masa persiapan itu disebut dengan Pekan Palma, yang berakhir dengan hari Sabtu Lazarus. Sehari setelah itu adalah Minggu Palma, Pekan Suci, lalu Minggu Paskah. Pada Sabtu tengah malam menjelang Minggu Paskah perayaan Paskah resmi dimulai, yang terdiri atas Matins, Jam-jam Paskah, dan Liturgi Surgawi Paskah; dengan demikian liturgi tersebut dijamin merupakan liturgi pertama Minggu Paskah, sesuai gelarnya sebagai festum festorum – perayaan dari semua perayaan. Pekan setelah Minggu Paskah disebut sebagai Pekan Terang, sedangkan masa setelah Minggu Paskah hingga Minggu Para Orang Kudus (hari Minggu setelah Pentakosta) disebut sebagai Pentakostarion.

Paskah pada gereja modern

Di dalam gereja-gereja Kristen, terutama ritus Latin, perayaan dimulai pada hari Jumat Agung. Gereja-gereja biasanya menyelenggarakan kebaktian pada hari tersebut, umat Katolik Roma biasanya juga berpuasa pada hari ini. Kebaktiannya diliputi dengan perasaan duka karena memperingati sengsara penderitaan dan kematian Yesus di kayu salib. Gereja-gereja Protestan biasanya melanjutkan kebaktian dengan sakramen Perjamuan Paskah untuk memperingati Perjamuan Malam Terakhir Yesus; lagu-lagu sendu seperti “Jangan Lupa Getsemani” juga dinyanyikan. Sang pastor atau pendeta kadang-kadang memberikan kotbah singkat. Gereja-gereja Katolik Roma biasanya tidak melakukan sakramen Perjamuan Kudus pada hari ini, sakramen pengakuan dosa dan pengurapan orang sakit. (lebih lengkapnya lihat Jumat Agung)

Pada hari Sabtunya gereja-gereja Katolik dan beberapa gereja Anglikan dan Lutheran juga menyelenggarakan kebaktian malam Paskah. Dalam kebaktian itu sebuah lilin Paskah dinyalakan untuk melambangkan Kristus yang bangkit; Exultet atau proklamasi Paskah dinyanyikan; ayat-ayat Alkitab dari Perjanjian Lama yang menceritakan keluarnya bangsa Israel dari Mesir dan nubuatan tentang Mesias dibacakan. Bagian kebaktian ini mencapai puncaknya dengan menyanyikan Gloria dan Alleluia, dan Injil tentang kisah kebangkitan dibacakan. Sama seperti kebaktian Jumat Agung, sang pastor atau pendeta kadang-kadang juga menyampaikan kotbah sesudah pembacaan Alkitab. Bagi gereja Katolik Roma, malam ini biasanya juga digunakan untuk sakramen baptisan kudus, malam penerimaan anggota jemaat gereja yang baru. Untuk anggota jemaat yang lain, mereka juga menerima percikan air suci sebagai lambang perbaruan iman kepercayaan mereka. Kebaktian pada gereja-gereja Katolik Roma kemudian dilanjutkan dengan sakramen Konfirmasi. Kebaktian kemudian diakhiri dengan sakramen Ekaristi. Kebaktian malam Paskah ini memiliki bermacam-macam variasi. Beberapa gereja mengadakannya pada

Auferstehung“, Hermann Stenner, 1914

Umat Protestan biasanya menggabungkan kebaktian malam Paskah dengan kebaktian Minggu pagi, yaitu mengikuti kisah di Injil yang menceritakan para wanita yang datang ke kubur Yesus pada pagi-pagi benar pada hari pertama minggu itu. Ada gereja yang menyelenggarakannya pada sekitar subuh (kebaktian subuh), dan biasanya dilangsungkan di luar ruangan seperti halaman gereja atau taman di dekat gereja, namun banyak pula yang merayakannya setelah matahari terbit. Kebaktian Minggu untuk memperingati kebangkitan Yesus ini (baik bersama-sama atau berbeda dari kebaktian subuh tersebut) dirayakan dengan sikap penuh sukacita, termasuk lagu-lagu yang dinyanyikan juga lagu yang bernuansa kemenangan. Gereja-gereja yang cukup besar ada yang menggunakan instrumen-instrumen tiup (terompet, dll) untuk melengkapi instrumen-instrumen yang biasa digunakan. Kebanyakan gereja juga mendekorasi ruang ibadah dengan hiasan-hiasan dan bunga-bungaan (contohnya Bakung Paskah)

Etimologi

Sebuah ikon Rusia yang menggambarkan kebangkitan Yesus

Istilah Paskah dalam bahasa-bahasa Latin biasanya diturunkan dari salah satu dari dua sumber: Paskha atau Pesakh dan Estre/Eostre atau Easter. Dalam bahasa-bahasa Slavia, biasanya istilah yang digunakan memiliki arti “Hari Agung”.

Bahasa-bahasa Semitik, Roman, Keltik, Jermanik, dan Indonesia

Istilah Yunani untuk Paskah, paskha/pascha, tidak ada hubungannya dengan kata kerja paschein, “menderita”, meskipun para penulis simbolis sering menghubungkan keduanya; kata tersebut berasal dari bentuk bahasa Aram untuk kata dalam bahasa Ibrani pesach. Orang Yunani menyebut Paskah pascha anastasimon; Jumat Agung pascha staurosimon. Kata setara yang digunakan di dalam bahasa Latin adalah Pascha resurrectionis dan Pascha crucifixionis. Di dalam buku liturgi Katolik Romawi perayaannya diberi nama Dominica Resurrectionis; di buku liturgi Mozarabik In Lætatione Diei Pasch Resurrectionis; di buku liturgi Ambrosius In Die Sancto Paschæ.. Bahasa-bahasa Romans telah mengambil istilah Ibrani-Yunani tersebut: Latin, Pascha; Italia, Pasqua; Spanyol, Pascua; Perancis, Pâques. Beberapa negara-negara Keltik dan Teutonik juga menggunakannya: Skotlandia, Pask; Belanda, Paschen (kata dalam bahasa Belanda yang betul sebenarnya adalah Pasen); Denmark dan Norwegia, Påske; Swedia: Påsk (Huruf å merupakan huruf ‘a’ berganda dan dieja /o/, ejaan alternatifnya adalah Paaske atau Paask.); Islandia: Páskar; Faroe: Páskir; bahkan di beberapa provinsi Jerman di Rhein Hulu menggunakan istilah Paisken, bukan Ostern. Istilah tersebut, terutama di Spanyol dan Italia, mengalami perluasan makna dan memiliki makna tambahan “keheningan” dan digunakan untuk perayaan-perayaan lainnya, Pascua florida (Minggu Palem); Pascua de Pentecostes (Pentakosta); Pascua de la Natividad (Natal); Pascua de Epifania (Epifani) di Spanyol; Pasko (Natal); Pasko ng Pagkabuhay (Paskah Kebangkitan) di Filipina. Di beberapa wilayah di Perancis kebaktian Komuni Pertama juga disebut dengan Pâques, tidak peduli kapan dilangsungkannya.

Bahasa Indonesia menggunakan istilah Paskah. Demikian juga bahasa Melayu, bahasa Jawa, dan bahasa-bahasa Nusantara lainnya.

 Bahasa-bahasa Anglo-Saxon

Dalam bahasa Inggris, istilah Easter (Paskah) menurut Bede berasal dari bahasa Saxon, yaitu kata Ēastre atau Ēostre yang masih berhubungan dengan Estre, seorang dewi bangsa Teutonik, dewi cahaya fajar dan musim semi, yang perayaannya berdekatan dengan perayaan Paskah, yang sudah tidak dikenal lagi pada zaman Bede, bahkan di “Edda“; bahasa Anglo-Saxon, termasuk Inggris: eâster, eâstron; Jerman Kuna: ôstra, ôstrara, ôstrarûn; Jerman: Ostern. April disebut easter-monadh. Bentuk plural eâstron digunakan, karena perayaannya berlangsung selama tujuh hari. Seperti bentuk plural dalam bahasa Perancis Pâques, istilah tersebut diterjemahkan dari bahasa Latin Festa Paschalia, seluruh Oktaf Paskah.

Bahasa-bahasa Slavia

Di dalam bahasa-bahasa Slavia istilah yang digunakan biasanya berarti “Hari Agung” atau “Malam Agung”. Polandia dan Ceko, Wielkanoc dan Velikonoce yang berarti “Malam(-malam) Agung”; Ukrainia, Великдень (Velykden); Bulgaria, Великден (Velikden); Belarusia, Вялікдзень (Vyalikdzyen) yang berarti “Hari Agung”.

Serbia, Bosnia, dan Kroasia menggunakan istilah Uskrs yang berarti “Kebangkitan”. (Tiga istilah yang digunakan dalam aksara Sirilik dan Latin: Ускрс->Uskrs, Васкрс->Vaskrs, Вeликден->Velikden)

Rusia adalah perkecualian; ia menggunakan istilah Пасха (Paskha) yang meminjam dari bentuk Yunani melalui bahasa Gereja Slavonia Lama.

 Tanggal Paskah

Tanggal Minggu Paskah
1982–2022
Menurut penanggalan Gregorian
Tahun Barat Timur
1982 April 11 April 18
1983 April 3 Mei 8
1984 April 22
1985 April 7 April 14
1986 Maret 30 Mei 4
1987 April 19
1988 April 3 April 10
1989 Maret 26 April 30
1990 April 15
1991 Maret 31 April 7
1992 April 19 April 26
1993 April 11 April 18
1994 April 3 Mei 1
1995 April 16 April 23
1996 April 7 April 14
1997 Maret 30 April 27
1998 April 12 April 19
1999 April 4 April 11
2000 April 23 April 30
2001 April 15
2002 Maret 31 Mei 5
2003 April 20 April 27
2004 April 11
2005 Maret 27 Mei 1
2006 April 16 April 23
2007 April 8
2008 Maret 23 April 27
2009 April 12 April 19
2010 April 4
2011 April 24
2012 April 8 April 15
2013 Maret 31 Mei 5
2014 April 20
2015 April 5 April 12
2016 Maret 27 Mei 1
2017 April 16
2018 April 1 April 8
2019 April 21 April 28
2020 April 12 April 19
2021 April 4 Mei 2
2022 April 17 April 24

Paskah (dan perayaan lain yang berhubungan) yang merupakan hari terpenting dalam kalender gerejawi disebut sebagai perayaan yang berpindah, yang berarti perayaannya tidak terpaku pada tanggal tertentu di dalam kalender Gregorian maupun Julian (yang sama-sama mengikuti perputaran matahari dan keempat musim) melainkan dihitung menurut kalender suryacandra seperti kalender Ibrani. Hal inilah yang mendasari ilmuwan-ilmuwan mempelajari astronomi secara sistematis.

Di dalam kalender Gregorian, Paskah selalu jatuh pada hari Minggu antara 22 Maret dan 25 April (inklusif). Hari berikutnya, Senin Paskah, merupakan hari libur di banyak negara dengan tradisi Kristen yang kuat. Untuk negara-negara yang mengikuti kalender Julian untuk perayaan-perayaan keagamaan, Paskah juga jatuh pada hari Minggu antara 22 Maret (KJ) dan 25 April (KJ), yang dalam kalender Gregorian adalah 4 April-8 Mei (inklusif).

Tanggal Paskah yang tepat pernah menjadi pokok perdebatan. Di dalam Konsili Nicaea I pada 325 diputuskan bahwa seluruh umat Kristen akan merayakan Paskah pada hari yang sama, yang akan dihitung secara berbeda dari perhitungan umat Yahudi untuk menentukan tanggal Paskah Yahudi. Karena tidak adanya catatan keputusan konsili yang selamat hingga zaman modern, ada kemungkinan bahwa konsili tersebut tidak memutuskan cara tertentu untuk menghitung tanggal Paskah. Epifanius dari Salamis menulis pada pertengahan abad ke-4:

…kaisar…menghimpun dewan dengan 318 uskup…di kota Nicea…Dalam konsili tersebut mereka juga menyetujui suatu kanon gerejawi, dan pada saat yang bersamaan menitahkan berkenaan dengan Paskah (Yahudi) bahwa diperlukan adanya satu permufakatan tentang perayaan hari Tuhan yang suci dan teramat penting tersebut. Karena hal tersebut diperingati secara berbeda-beda oleh orang-orang…

Pada tahun berikutnya, cara perhitungan yang dikerjakan oleh gereja Aleksandria menjadi standar perhitungan. Secara perlahan sistem tersebut mulai tersebar ke gereja-gereja Kristen di Eropa. Gereja Roma meneruskan penggunaan siklus kalender suryacandra yang berusia 84 tahun sejak akhir abad ke-3 hingga 457. Gereja Roma terus menggunakan caranya sendiri hingga abad ke-6 saat metode Aleksandria telah dikonversikan ke kalender Julian oleh Dionysius Exiguus. Gereja mula-mula di Britania dan Irlandia juga menggunakan metode Roma yang lama tersebut hingga Sinode Whitby tahun 664 saat mereka mulai menggunakan metode Aleksandria. Gereja-gereja di belahan barat Eropa menggunakan metode Roma hingga akhir abad ke-8 pada masa pemerintahan Karel yang Agung, lalu mereka menggunakan metode Aleksandria. Namun demikian, sejak Gereja Katolik mulai menggunakan kalender Gregorian menggantikan kalender Julian sejak 1582 dan Gereja Ortodoks Timur tetap berpegang pada kalender Julian, maka perayaan Paskah kembali dirayakan secara berbeda, dan perbedaan itu tetap ada hingga saat ini.

 Perhitungan

Metode penghitungan computus paschalis sejak dulu dianggap sangat penting bahkan Durandus mengatakan bahwa seorang pastor tidak layak disebut pastor jika tidak tahu (cara menghitung) computus paschalis. [33]

Perhitungan dasar yang berlaku sejak Zaman Pertengahan adalah Paskah dirayakan pada hari Minggu setelah bulan purnama pertama setelah hari pertama musim semi (vernal equinox). Kalimat tersebut sebenarnya tidak tepat benar dengan sistem perhitungan gerejawi.

Dalam perhitungan gerejawi, gereja-gereja Kristen menggunakan 21 Maret sebagai awal tanggal perhitungan Paskah, dari sana dicari kapan bulan purnama berikutnya, dst. Bagi gereja-gereja Ortodoks yang masih menggunakan kalender Julian, tanggal yang digunakan juga 21 Maret, namun dalam kalender Julian, sebagai akibatnya terdapat perbedaan-perbedaan seperti yang tampak pada bagan di kanan.

Perhitungan yang kompleks tersebut kira-kira dapat disederhanakan sebagai berikut:

Paskah ditentukan berdasarkan siklus suryacandra. Satu bulan dalam penanggalan candra (bulan) terdiri dari bulan-bulan sepanjang 30 hari dan 29 hari, berselang-seling, dengan satu bulan tambahan yang ditambahkan secara berkala agar pas dengan penanggalan surya (matahari). Dalam setiap tahun surya (1 Januari hingga 31 Desember), bulan candra dimulai dengan sebuah purnama gerejawi yang jatuh pada periode 29 hari di antara 8 Maret hingga 5 April (inklusif) dan dinamakan “bulan candra Paskah” tahun tersebut. Paskah adalah hari Minggu ke-3 dalam bulan candra Paskah, atau dengan kata lain hari Minggu setelah hari ke-14 bulan candra Paskah. Hari ke-14 itu sendiri dinamakan purnama Paskah, walaupun hari ke-14 pada bulan candra dapat berbeda dengan purnama astronomis hingga 2 hari lamanya. Karena purnama gerejawi jatuh pada tanggal 8 Maret hingga 5 April (>8 Maret & <=5 April), purnama Paskah atau hari ke-14-nya pasti jatuh pada tanggal 21 Maret hingga 18 April (>21 Maret & <=18 April).

Persentase distribusi tanggal Paskah (Siklus 5.700.000 tahun)

Dengan demikian Paskah menurut kalender Gregorian akan memiliki 35 kemungkinan hari – antara 22 Maret hingga 25 April (inklusif). Terakhir kali Paskah jatuh pada tanggal 22 Maret adalah pada tahun 1818 dan berikutnya adalah tahun 2285. Terakhir kali Paskah jatuh pada tanggal 25 April adalah pada 1943 dan berikutnya adalah tahun 2038. Siklus perputaran tangan-tanggal Paskah berulang tepat setiap 5.700.000 tahun; 19 April merupakan tanggal Paskah yang tersering, yang terjadi 220.400 kali, atau 3.9%, dibanding dengan median tanggal-tanggal lainnya sebanyak 189.525 kali atau 3.3%. Paskah menurut kalender Julian seringkali (sekitar 50%) dirayakan 1 minggu setelah kalender Gregorian, karena tidak adanya penyesuaian perhitungan tanggal seperti yang dilakukan di kalender Gregorian. Namun tidak jarang pula selisih waktunya hingga 3-4 minggu.

Untuk menghindari perbedaan cara perhintungan Paskah, gereja Katolik telah membuat tabel tanggal Paskah menurut aturan di atas. Seluruh gereja yang merayakan Paskah merayakannya sesuai dengan tanggal di tabel.

Beberapa algoritma yang digunakan untuk menghitung Paskah antara lain perhitungan Gregorian, algoritma Gauss, algoritma Gregorian anonim, dan algoritma Julian Meeus.

 Hubungan dengan penanggalan Paskah Yahudi

Paskah Yahudi juga menggunakan kalender suryacandra untuk menghitung tanggal perayaan. Minggu Paskah biasanya jatuh sekitar seminggu setelah hari pertama Paskah Yahudi (tanggal 15 Nisan pada penanggalan Yahudi). Namun karena perbedaan sistem penghitungan tanggal suryacandra antara kalender Yahudi dan Gregorian, dalam siklus 19 tahun Paskah Yahudi jatuhnya satu bulan setelah hari Minggu Paskah, yaitu tahun ke-3, 11, dan 14 dalam siklus 19 tahun kalender Gregorian (atau tahun ke 19, 8, dan 11 berturut-turut pada siklus 19 tahun kalender

Karena dalam kalender Yahudi modern tanggal 15 Nisan tidak pernah jatuh pada hari Senin, Rabu, atau Jumat, seder tanggal 15 Nisan tidak pernah jatuh pada malam Kamis Putih. Seder kedua, yang diperingati oleh sebagian komunitas Yahudi sebagai malam Paskah (Yahudi) kedua, dapat jatuh pada Kamis malam.

 Reformasi penanggalan Paskah

Tanggal Paskah 2001-2020 menurut penanggalan Gregorian
Tahun Paskah
Astronomis
Paskah
Gregorian
Paskah
Julian
Purnama
Astronomis
Paskah
Yahudi
2001 April 15 April 15 April 15 April 8 April 8
2002 Maret 31 Maret 31 Mei 5 Maret 28 Maret 28
2003 April 20 April 20 April 27 April 16 April 17
2004 April 11 April 11 April 11 April 5 April 6
2005 Maret 27 Maret 27 Mei 1 Maret 25 April 24
2006 April 16 April 16 April 23 April 13 April 13
2007 April 8 April 8 April 8 April 2 April 3
2008 Maret 23 Maret 23 April 27 Maret 21 April 20
2009 April 12 April 12 April 19 April 9 April 9
2010 April 4 April 4 April 4 Maret 30 Maret 30
2011 April 24 April 24 April 24 April 18 April 19
2012 April 8 April 8 April 15 April 6 April 7
2013 Maret 31 Maret 31 Mei 5 Maret 27 Maret 26
2014 April 20 April 20 April 20 April 15 April 15
2015 April 5 April 5 April 12 April 4 April 4
2016 Maret 27 Maret 27 Mei 1 Maret 23 April 23
2017 April 16 April 16 April 16 April 11 April 11
2018 April 1 April 1 April 8 Maret 31 Maret 31
2019 Maret 24 April 21 April 28 Maret 21 April 20
2020 April 12 April 12 April 19 April 8 April 9
Notes: 1. Paskah Astronomis adalah hari Minggu pertama setelah Purnama Astronomis.
2. Paskah Yahudi dimulai saat matahari tenggelam pada hari sebelum tanggal tercantum.

Dalam sebuah kongres Pan-Ortodoks tahun 1923, uskup-uskup Gereja Ortodoks Timur bertemu di Konstantinopel di bawah kepemimpinan Patriark Meletios IV. Di dalam kongres tersebut para uskup menyetujui Perubahan kalender Julian. Aslinya, kalender ini akan dapat menentukan tanggal Paskah berdasarkan perhitungan astronomis yang berlandaskan meridian Yerusalem.Namun negara-negara yang menggunakan revisi tersebut hanya menggunakan revisi-revisi hari-hari raya yang memiliki tanggal tetap pada kalender Julian, revisi rumus perhitungan tanggal Paskah tidak pernah diterapkan di keuskupan Ortodoks manapun.

Pada pertemuan puncak Dewan Gereja-gereja se-Dunia (DGD) di Aleppo, Suriah pada 1997, DGD mengusulkan reformasi penghitungan Paskah yang akan mempersatukan kembali kedua sistem yang ada (Barat/Gregorian dan Timur/Julian) dengan pengetahuan ilmu astronomis modern yang menghitung equinox musim semi astronomis dan bulan purnama di meridian Yerusalem, dan juga mengikuti Konsili Nicea I tentang penanggalan Paskah pada hari Minggu pertama setelah bulan purnama. DGD melampirkan tabel di samping. Perubahan yang diusulkan DGD ini akan menyelesaikan masalah penanggalan dan menghilangkan perbedaan di antara gereja-gereja (ritus) Timur dan Barat. Reformasi ini diusulkan mulai digunakan sejak 2001, namun hingga kini hal tersebut belum digunakan oleh anggota manapun.

Perayaan Paskah

 Tradisi Paskah Kristen

Anak Domba

Di antara simbol-simbol Paskah Kristiani yang populer, anak domba adalah yang paling penting dalam perayaan agung ini. Yesus Kristus sebagai “Anak Domba Paskah”, sebagaimana yang diungkapkan Paulus dalam 1 Korintus 5:7, dengan bendera kemenangan, dapat dilihat dalam lukisan-lukisan yang dipasang di rumah-rumah keluarga Eropa.

Doa paling kuno untuk pemberkatan anak domba ditemukan dalam buku ritual abad ketujuh biara Benediktin di Bobbio, Italia. Dua ratus tahun kemudian Roma mempergunakannya dan sesudah itu, selama berabad-abad kemudian, menu utama santap malam Paus pada Hari Raya Paskah adalah anak domba panggang. Setelah abad kesepuluh, sebagai ganti anak domba utuh, disajikan potongan-potongan daging yang lebih kecil.

Tradiri kuno anak domba Paskah juga mengilhami umat Kristiani untuk menyajikan daging anak domba sebagai hidangan populer pada masa Paskah. Hingga sekarang, daging anak domba disajikan sebagai menu utama Minggu Paskah di berbagai daerah di Eropa timur. Tetapi, seringkali bentuk-bentuk anak domba kecil terbuat dari mentega, roti atau pun gula-gula menggantikan sajian daging anak domba, dan menjadi hidangan utama jamuan Paskah.

Tuguran

Tuguran adalah tradisi penting dalam Gereja Katolik Roma, yang mencakup puasa sampai 40 jam mulai Jumat pagi sebelum Paskah. Hari Sabtu tengah malam mereka berbuka puasa, dengan menyanyikan kidung rohani, membaca kitab suci dan melakukan ritual dengan roti dan anggur. Misa fajar pada Minggu Paskah merupakan salah satu bentuk tuguran.

Acara musik Paskah

Di kota Winston-Salem, negara bagian North Carolina, AS terdapat sebuah jemaat Gereja Persaudaraan Moravia yang memiliki tradisi Paskah tahunan. Mulai hari Minggu pukul dua dini hari, para anggota gereja Moravia kota tersebut datang ke sebuah kuburan bersejarah bernama God’s Acre untuk menyambut kebangkitan Yesus diiringi dengan koor alat-alat musik yang berjumlah hingga 500 alat musik. Acara ini sudah dilangsungkan setiap tahun selama lebih dari dua abad dan telah menarik ribuan turis setiap tahunnya sehingga kota Winston-Salem diberi julukan “Kota Paskah” (Easter City).

Salubong

Di Filipina yang mayoritasnya Katolik Roma, pada hari Minggu Paskah paginya diselenggarakan dengan perayaan yang penuh sukacita, yang dikenal dengan nama Salubong (Pertemuan). Pada festival tersebut patung raksasa Maria dan Yesus, dan beberapa orang suci lainnya, diarak di jalanan yang m. Perayaan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan misa Paskah.

Misa sehari penuh

Di New Mexico, AS setiap tahun, sampai 50 ribu orang berbaris di jalan-jalan di negara bagian tersebut untuk mencapai sebuah gereja kecil berumur 200 tahun pada fajar Hari Paskah. Ada yang berjalan sejauh 165 kilometer. Gereja ini menyelenggarakan misa sehari penuh tanpa henti, memberikan sakramen komuni suci untuk semua umat yang datang.

Gua Maria

Di Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia setiap menjelang Paskah, puluhan ribu peziarah mengunjungi Kapel Tuan Ma di Kota Larantuka, untuk menghormati Mater Dolorosa atau patung Bunda Maria. Selain hari Paskah, patung ini tidak diperkenankan dilihat untuk umum. Puluhan ribu umat Katolik dari berbagai daerah rela mengantre berjam-jam untuk dapat masuk dalam Kapel Tuan Ma. Di kapel itu, digelar upacara Muda Tuan atau pembersihan patung Bunda Maria. Selesai upacara, pintu-pintu kapela dibuka dan umat diperbolehkan masuk untuk memberikan penghormatan kepada Mater Dolorosa. Di dalam kapela, para peziarah menyalakan lilin sambil menyanyikan lagu-lagu untuk memuji Mater Dolorosa. Patung Mater Dolorosa hanya dapat dilihat setahun sekali pada saat menjelang Paskah.

Sebuah prosesi kebangkitan di Sulmona, Italia

Prosesi kebangkitan

Di Polandia, prosesi kebangkitan (Rezurekcja) dimulai pada misa Paskah pagi pada saat lonceng-lonceng gereja dibunyikan dengan suara nyaring untuk memperingati kebangkitan Yesus. Tradisi yang lain adalah Święconka, yakni pemberkatan keranjang Paskah oleh pastor pada Sabtu Suci.

Kota Sevile di Spanyol biasanya menyelenggarakan perayaan Paskah yang sangat meriah. Selama Pekan Suci, prosesi demi prosesi berlangsung di kota tersebut (total 58 prosesi selama Pekan Suci 2007) yang tidak jarang diikuti oleh 3000 orang per prosesi. Pemain musik ikut dalam iring-iringan tersebut. Prosesi yang paling terkenal adalah pada Jumat Agung malam.

Selain di Seville, kota-kota lainnya di Spanyol juga terkenal akan tradisi festival Paskah mereka, seperti kota Málaga, León, Cartagena, Castille, dll. Negara-negara lain yang memiliki tradisi Paskah yang kuat antara lain Italia, Malta, negara-negara Amerika Tengah dan Amerika Latin.

Telur Paskah

Karena telur tidak diperkenankan untuk dimakan selama masa Pra-Paskah, maka pada hari Paskah telur kembali disantap bersama-sama, dan pada mulanya diberi warna merah untuk melambangkan sukacita Paskah. Tradisi ini tidak hanya ditemukan di gereja-gereja Latin, tapi juga Oriental. Pemberian makna simbolis yang mengkaitkan telur dengan kelahiran baru diperkirakan baru diciptakan lama setelah tradisi ini ada. Tradisi ini diduga berasal dari/dipengaruhi oleh paganisme. Pada beberapa negara, orang tua-orang tua baptis memberikan telur Paskah kepada anak-anak baptis mereka. Telur yang bewarna biasanya digunakan sebagai mainan anak-anak. Di Amerika Serikat terdapat permainan yang cukup populer, yang dikenal dengan sebutan “egg-picking” (mengambil telur). Permainan yang lain misalnya “egg-rolling” (menggelindingkan telur) yang dilakukan anak-anak pada Senin Paskah di halaman Gedung Putih di Washington.

Prosesi membangunkan orang

Di Puy, Perancis, ada tradisi Paskah yang tidak diketahui sejak kapan mulainya, yaitu pada saat menyanyikan mazmur Matins seorang penyanyi yang menjadi bagian dari koor tersebut absen, maka beberapa penyanyi dan seorang pendeta akan berjalan membawa salib prosesi dan air suci, lalu pergi ke rumah penyanyi yang absen tadi, sambil menyanyikan lagu “Haec Dies”, lalu memerciknya dengan air suci jika ia masih berada di tempat tidur, lalu menuntunnya ke gereja. Sebagai hukuman atas absennya, ia harus membuatkan makan pagi untuk sang konduktor. Tradisi yang serupa juga ditemui di Nantes dan Angers pada abad ke-15; sinode melarangnya pada 1431 dan 1448

Hidangan Paskah orang Slowakia

Pemberkatan makanan

Di Gereja-gereja Latin dan Oriental, ada tradisi untuk memberkati makanan yang selama masa Pra-Paskah tidak boleh disantap sebelum memakannya pada hari Paskah, terutama daging, telur, mentega, dan keju. Mereka yang makan makanan tersebut sebelum diberkati, menurut kepercayaan pada masa lampau, akan dihukum oleh Tuhan.

Pemberkatan rumah

Pada malam Paskah rumah-rumah diberkati. untuk memperingati tradisi membubuhkan darah domba Paskah di tiang pintu rumah. Pendeta paroki-paroki (di Eropa) mengunjungi rumah-rumah di keparokiannya; tempat tinggal Paus juga diberkati pada hari ini oleh Paus sendiri.

 Tradisi Paskah sekuler

Paskah saat ini telah menjadi salah satu hari raya yang penting secara ekonomi, terlihat dari banyaknya penjualan kartu Paskah, telur Paskah yang terbuat dari cokelat, serta pernak-pernik serta makanan-makanan bertemakan Paskah lainnya. Berawal dari Eropa dan Amerika Serikat, tradisi-tradisi Paskah yang sekuler mulai menyebar ke negara-negara lainnya di dunia, termasuk yang populasi Kristennya sedikit. Hotel-hotel dan pusat-pusat perbelanjaan banyak mengambil tema Paskah yang terlepas dari unsur kekristenannya.

Di banyak negara-negara berbahasa Inggris seperti Amerika Serikat, Australia, dan Selandia Baru tradisi Paskah yang berlangsung biasanya di seputar telur Paskah. Menghias telur Paskah pada hari Sabtu dan berburu telur-telur tersebut yang disembunyikan pada hari Minggunya. Selama lebih dari 100 tahun, anak-anak datang ke halaman Gedung Putih pada hari Senin Paskah, untuk ikut berburu telur Paskah.

Di berbagai daerah di Jerman kelinci-kelinci Paskah dalam bentuk kue-kue dan gula-gula mulai populer di Jerman Selatan, dan sekarang kue dan gula-gula tersebut amat disukai anak-anak di berbagai macam negara.

Berski saat liburan Paskah di Norwegia

Ski

Di negara-negara Skandinavia seperti Norwegia, Finlandia, Swedia, dan Denmark, banyak orang yang menjalankan tradisi lama ber-ski pada hari Paskah. Tradisi yang lain adalah mendandani anak-anak kecil dengan kostum untuk meminta permen ke tetangga-tetangga mereka.

Api Paskah di Balve, Jerman

Api Paskah

Di bagian utara dan timur Belanda (Twente dan Achterhoek) dan di Jerman Utara (Osterfeuer), api Paskah (Paasvuur) dinyalakan pada Minggu Paskah malam.

Pada zaman dahulu, api Oster dinyalakan di atas gunung (gunung Easter/Osterberg) dan dinyalakan dari api yang baru pada kayu nodfyr; Ini merupakan tradisi pagan yang menyebar di benua Eropa yang melambangkan dimulainya musim semi dan berakhirnya musim dingin. Para uskup gereja mengeluarkan larangan terhadap penyalaan api ini, namun tidak berhasil menghapuskan tradisi non-Kristen ini. Gereja lalu mengadopsi upacara ini, dan memberi lambang yang baru, yaitu memperingati “tiang api” yang menuntun bangsa Israel keluar dari Mesir dan kebangkitan Yesus; api Paskah yang baru ini dinyalakan pada hari Sabtu Suci dari batu api, melambangkan batu penutup kubur yang digulingkan ketika Yesus bangkit. Di beberapa tempat di Eropa sebuah lambang musim dingin dilemparkan ke api, namun di Rhine, Tyrol, dan Bohemia, yang dilemparkan ke api adalah lambang Yudas

Olahraga dan perayaan

Jemaat Yunani dan Rusia, setelah melewati masa Pra-Paskah mereka yang panjang, merayakan Paskah dengan olahraga-olahraga populer; di mana-mana ada musik, tari-tarian, dan aktivitas-aktivitas lainnya. Di Rusia orang-orang boleh berkunjung ke menara lonceng gereja dan membunyikan sendiri loncengnya khusus pada hari tersebut, sebuah kesempatan yang jarang dilewatkan oleh penduduk setempat[.

Bola tangan

Bola tangan merupakan salah satu kegiatan Paskah yang dilakukan di Perancis dan Jerman. Bola dapat melambangkan matahari. Para uskup, pendeta, dan biarawan, setelah melewati masa Pra-Paskah yang ketat, biasa bermain bola tangan sepanjang pekan Paskah. Kegiatan ini disebut dengan nama libertas Decembrica, karena sebelumnya pada bulan Desember para tuan biasa bermain bola dengan pelayan-pelayan dan gembala-gembala ternak mereka. Permainan bola tangan tersebut kemudian disambung dengan tari-tarian yang bahkan diikuti oleh para uskup dan biarawan. Di Inggris, permainan bola ini juga merupakan olahraga favorit Paskah, namun saat ini tradisi-tradisi tersebut telah menghilang.

Pancuran Paskah di Jerman yang dihiasi dengan telur-telur Paskah

Festival Paskah

Kota Salzburg di Austria setiap tahunnya mengadakan Festival Paskah Salzburg (Salzburger Osterfestspiele), yaitu festival opera dan musik klasik selama pekan Paskah. Festival itu telah berlangsung sejak 1967 dan diperkuat oleh Die Berliner Philharmoniker (Orkestra Filharmonik Berlin), Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester (Orkestra Muda Gustav Mahler), dll.

Kelinci Paskah

Kelinci Paskah merupakan simbol pagan dan selalu merupakan simbol kesuburan

Kontroversi seputar Paskah

Di Amerika Serikat terdapat beberapa kelompok yang mengusulkan penggantian istilah Jumat Agung dan Paskah (Good Friday dan Easter) menjadi Liburan Musim Semi (Spring Holiday). Istilah ini sudah digunakan pada beberapa sekolah-sekolah negeri di AS. Hal ini dipandang oleh kaum Kristiani sebagai usaha untuk sekularisasi perayaan keagamaan

Sumber : Wikipedia

Happy Easter.. :)

BRONCHITIS PADA ANAK

Bronkitis pada Anak

1. Pengertian
Secara harfiah bronkitis adalah suatu penyakit yang ditanda oleh inflamasi bronkus. Secara klinis pada ahli mengartikan bronkitis sebagai suatu penyakit atau gangguan respiratorik dengan batuk merupakan gejala yang utama dan dominan. Ini berarti bahwa bronkitis bukan penyakit yang berdiri sendiri melainkan bagian dari penyakit lain tetapi bronkitis ikut memegang peran.( Ngastiyah, 1997 )
Bronkitis berarti infeksi bronkus. Bronkitis dapat dikatakan penyakit tersendiri, tetapi biasanya merupakan lanjutan dari infeksi saluran peranpasan atas atau bersamaan dengan penyakit saluran pernapasan atas lain seperti Sinobronkitis, Laringotrakeobronkitis, Bronkitis pada asma dan sebagainya (Gunadi Santoso, 1994)
Sebagai penyakit tersendiri, bronkitis merupakan topik yang masih diliputi kontroversi dan ketidakjelasan di antara ahli klinik dan peneliti. Bronkitis merupakan diagnosa yang sering ditegakkan pada anak baik di Indonesia maupun di luar negeri, walaupun dengan patokan diagnosis yang tidak selalu sama.(Taussig, 1982; Rahayu, 1984)
Kesimpangsiuran definisi bronkitis pada anak bertambah karena kurangnya konsesus mengenai hal ini. Tetapi keadaan ini sukar dielakkan karena data hasil penyelidikan tentang hal ini masih sangat kurang.
2. Review Anatomi Fisiologi Sistem Pernapasan
Pernapasan adalah peristiwa menghirup udara dari luar yang mengandung oksigen ke dalam tubuh serta menghembuskan udara yang banyak mengandung CO2 sebagai sisa dari oksidasi keluar dari tubuh. Fungsi dari sistem pernapasan adalah untuk mengambil O2 yang kemudian dibawa oleh darah ke seluruh tubuh untuk mengadakan pembakaran, mengeluarkan CO2 hasil dari metabolisme .
a. Hidung
Merupakan saluran udara yang pertama yang mempunyai dua lubang dipisahkan oleh sekat septum nasi. Di dalamnya terdapat bulu-bulu untuk menyaring udara, debu dan kotoran. Selain itu terdapat juga konka nasalis inferior, konka nasalis posterior dan konka nasalis media yang berfungsi untuk mengahangatkan udara.
b. Faring
Merupakan tempat persimpangan antara jalan pernapasan dan jalan makanan. Terdapat di bawah dasar pernapasan, di belakang rongga hidung, dan mulut sebelah depan ruas tulang leher. Di bawah selaput lendir terdapat jaringan ikat, juga di beberapa tempat terdapat folikel getah bening.
c. Laring
Merupakan saluran udara dan bertindak sebelum sebagai pembentuk suara. Terletak di depan bagian faring sampai ketinggian vertebra servikalis dan masuk ke dalam trakea di bawahnya. Laring dilapisi oleh selaput lendir, kecuali pita suara dan bagian epiglottis yang dilapisi oleh sel epitelium berlapis.
d. Trakea
Merupakan lanjutan dari laring yang dibentuk oleh 16 – 20 cincin yang terdiri dari tulang rawan yang berbentuk seperti tapal kuda yang berfungsi untuk mempertahankan jalan napas agar tetap terbuka. Sebelah dalam diliputi oleh selaput lendir yang berbulu getar yang disebut sel bersilia, yang berfungsi untuk mengeluarkan benda asing yang masuk bersama-sama dengan udara pernapasan.
e. Bronkus
Merupakan lanjutan dari trakea, ada 2 buah yang terdapat pada ketinggian vertebra thorakalis IV dan V. mempunyai struktur serupa dengan trakea dan dilapisi oleh jenis sel yang sama. Bronkus kanan lebih besar dan lebih pendek daripada bronkus kiri, terdiri dari 6 – 8 cincin dan mempunyai 3 cabang. Bronkus kiri terdiri dari 9 – 12 cincin dan mempunyai 2 cabang. Cabang bronkus yang lebih kecil dinamakan bronkiolus, disini terdapat cincin dan terdapat gelembung paru yang disebut alveolli.
f. Paru-paru
Merupakan alat tubuh yang sebagian besar dari terdiri dari gelembung-gelembung. Di sinilah tempat terjadinya pertukaran gas, O2 masuk ke dalam darah dan CO2 dikeluarkan dari darah.
3. Klasifkasi
a. Bronkitis Akut
Bronkitis akut pada bayi dan anak biasanya juga bersama dengan trakeitis, merupakan penyakit saluran napas akut (ISNA) yang sering dijumpai.
b. Bronkitis Kronik dan atau Batuk Berulang
Bronkitis Kronik dan atau berulang adalah kedaan klinis yang disebabkan oleh berbagai sebab dengan gejala batuk yang berlangsung sekurang-kurangnya selama 2 minggu berturut-turut dan atau berulang paling sedikit 3 kali dalam 3 bulan dengan atau tanpa disertai gejala respiratorik dan non respiratorik lainnya (KONIKA, 1981). Dengan memakai batasan ini maka secara jelas terlihat bahwa Bronkitis Kronik termasuk dalam kelompok BKB tersebut. Dalam keadaan kurangnya data penyelidikan mengenai Bronkitis Kronik pada anak maka untuk menegakkan diagnosa Bronkitis Kronik baru dapat ditegakkan setelah menyingkirkan semua penyebab lainnya dari BKB.

4. Etiologi
Penyebab utama penyakit Bronkitis Akut adalah adalah virus. Sebagai contoh Rhinovirus Sincytial Virus (RSV), Infulenza Virus, Para-influenza Virus, Adenovirus dan Coxsakie Virus. Bronkitis Akut selalu terjadi pada anak yang menderita Morbilli, Pertusis dan infeksi Mycoplasma Pneumonia. Belum ada bukti yang meyakinkan bahwa bakteri lain merupakan penyebab primer Bronkitis Akut pada anak. Di lingkungan sosio-ekonomi yang baik jarang terdapat infeksi sekunder oleh bakteri. Alergi, cuaca, polusi udara dan infeksi saluran napas atas dapat memudahkan terjadinya bronkitis akut.
Sedangkan pada Bronkitis Kronik dan Batuk Berulang adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Spesifik
1) Asma
2) Infeksi kronik saluran napas bagian atas (misalnya sinobronkitis).
3) Infeksi, misalnya bertambahnya kontak dengan virus, infeksi mycoplasma, hlamydia, pertusis, tuberkulosis, fungi/jamur.
4) Penyakit paru yang telah ada misalnya bronkietaksis.
5) Sindrom aspirasi.
6) Penekanan pada saluran napas
7) Benda asing
8) Kelainan jantung bawaan
9) Kelainan sillia primer
10) Defisiensi imunologis
11) Kekurangan anfa-1-antitripsin
12) Fibrosis kistik
13) Psikis
b. Non-spesifik
1. Asap rokok
2. Polusi udara
5. Patofisiologi
Virus
(penyebab tersering infeksi) – Masuk saluran pernapasan – Sel mukosa dan sel silia – Berlanjut – Masuk saluran pernapasan(lanjutan) – Menginfeksi saluran pernapasan – Bronkitis – Mukosa membengkak dan menghasilkan lendir – Pilek 3 – 4 hari – Batuk (mula-mula kering kemudian berdahak) – Riak jernih – Purulent – Encer – Hilang – Batuk – Keluar – Suara ronchi basah atau suara napas kasar – Nyeri subsernal – Sesak napas – Jika tidak hilang setelah tiga minggu – Kolaps paru segmental atau infeksi paru sekunder (pertahanan utama) (Sumber : dr.Rusepno Hasan, Buku Kuliah 3 Ilmu Kesehatan Anak, 1981)

6. Tanda dan gejala
Menurut Gunadi Santoso dan Makmuri (1994), tanda dan gejala yang ada yaitu :
- Biasanya tidak demam, walaupun ada tetapi rendah
- Keadaan umum baik, tidak tampak sakit, tidak sesak
- Mungkin disertai nasofaringitis atau konjungtivitis
- Pada paru didapatkan suara napas yang kasar
Menurut Ngastiyah (1997), yang perlu diperhatikan adalah akibat batuk yang lama, yaitu :
- Batuk siang dan malam terutama pada dini hari yang menyebabkan klien murang istirahat
- Daya tahan tubuh klien yang menurun
- Anoreksia sehingga berat badan klien sukar naik
- Kesenangan anak untuk bermain terganggu
- Konsentrasi belajar anak menurun

7. Komplikasi
a. Bronkitis Akut yang tidak ditangani cenderung menjadi Bronkitis Kronik
b. Pada anak yang sehat jarang terjadi komplikasi, tetapi pada anak dengan gizi kurang dapat
terjadi Othithis Media, Sinusitis dan Pneumonia
c. Bronkitis Kronik menyebabkan mudah terserang infeksi
d. Bila sekret tetap tinggal, dapat menyebabkan atelektasisi atau Bronkietaksis

8. Pemeriksaan Penunjang
a. Foto Thorax : Tidak tampak adanya kelainan atau hanya hyperemia
b. Laboratorium : Leukosit > 17.500.
9. Penatalaksanaan
a. Tindakan Perawatan
Pada tindakan perawatan yang penting ialah mengontrol batuk dan mengeluarakan lendir
- Sering mengubah posisi
- Banyak minum
- Inhalasi
- Nebulizer
- Untuk mempertahankan daya tahan tubuh, setelah anak muntah dan tenang perlu
diberikan minum susu atau makanan lain
b. Tindakan Medis
- Jangan beri obat antihistamin berlebih
- Beri antibiotik bila ada kecurigaan infeksi bakterial
- Dapat diberi efedrin 0,5 – 1 mg/KgBB tiga kali sehari
- Chloral hidrat 30 mg/Kg BB sebagai sedatif
10. Pencegahan
Menurut Ngastiyah (1997), untuk mengurangi gangguan tersebut perlu diusahakan agar batuk tidak bertambah parah.
- Membatasi aktivitas anak
- Tidak tidur di kamar yang ber AC atau gunakan baju dingin, bila ada yang tertutup lehernya
- Hindari makanan yang merangsang
- Jangan memandikan anak terlalu pagi atau terlalu sore, dan mandikan anak dengan air hangat
- Jaga kebersihan makanan dan biasakan cuci tangan sebelum makan
- Menciptakan lingkungan udara yang bebas polusi :)

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