(Garcinia mangostana L.)
Trees, evergreen, 60-20 m. high Stems erect, main stem clear, brown bark, a yellow sap. Single leaf, leaves sit opposite or cross dealing, strands, shiny surface, upper surface dark green lower surface light green, elongated elliptical shape, 12-23 x 4.5 to 10 cm, stems 1.5 to 2 cm. 1-3 female flowers at the end of the rod, the structure menggarpu, 5-6 cm diameter. Petal petals leaf, two leaf green outer petals are yellow, 2 of hearts are smaller, red-edged, strongly curved, blunt. The crown consists of 4 leaves of the crown, inverted egg shape, thick fleshy, green, yellow, red edge or nearly all red. Sterile stamens (staminodia) usually in the skein (the group). 4-8 would bear fruit, the stigma of radius 4-6. Fruit depressed spherical, 3.5 to 7 cm diameter, dark purple, with the stigma of sitting (fixed), fixed petal, fruit wall thick, fleshy, purple, with yellow sap. Seeds 1-3, blanketed by a thick membrane watery beans, white, can be eaten (including seeds that failed to grow perfect). The origin is unknown. Flowering time from May to January. This plant can grow in Java, at an altitude of 1000-1000 m above sea level on the various types of soil (on clay and clay rich in organic material), often as a fruit crop. Climate required is the presence of moisture and heat with a uniform rainfall. Propagation of plants can be done with seeds that have been dikecambahkan it first in plastic bags (soon after removed from the fruit). Sprouts can be planted in the field after the age of 2-3 years, with a distance of 10 m. tanarn Young plants should be protected / shaded and will bear fruit after the age of 8-15 years. Trees will be nurtured to fruition quicker. The success rate of propagation by tissue culture method using leaf axillary bud pillar indole butyric acid (IBA) is very small.
NAME simplicia Garciniae mangostanae Fructus Cortex; Mangosteen rind. Garciniae mangostanae Radix; Roots Manggis. Garciniae mangostanae Folium; Leaves Mangosteen
EFFECT OF BIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY mangosteen rind decoction has antidiarrheal effect. Young mangosteen fruit has the effect speriniostatik and spermicides. Extract (n-hexane and ethanol), mangosteen has a certain degree ketoksikan on the use of test methods Schrimp Brine Test (BST). From the results of a study reported that Mangostin (1,3,6-trihidroksi-7-methoxy-2 ,8-bis (-2-butenil 3metil)-9H-Xanten-9-on) of the isolated from skin of the fruit has anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidants. From the results of pharmacological and biochemical studies can be seen that mangostin competitively inhibit not only histamine H receptors, mediators of muscle contraction but also epiramin software that builds the H1 receptor, in the soft muscle cells intact. Mangostin is a new type of histamine. The toxicity of young leaf extracts of pregnant mice with a dose of 500, 1000, 1500 mg / kg, showed effects on the fetus in the form of weight loss, bleeding in the fetus, and fetal liver tissue changes such as necrosis of liver cells, but no deviation development and abortion. Leaf extract of mangosteen with various doses can reduce the number of spermatid cells, additional amounts of abnormal spermatozoa, and the slow forward movement of spermatozoa of mice.
USEFULNESS IN SOCIETY
The fruit is used to treat diarrhea, inflammation of the tonsils, vaginal discharge, dysentery, hemorrhoids, ulcers, also used as a laxative sputum, and also for toothache. Rind is used to treat thrush, dysentery, sore muscles, constipation. Bark used to treat abdominal pain. Roots to overcome the irregular menstruation. In terms of flavor, the mangosteen fruit is potential to make juice.
HOW TO USE IN THE COMMUNITY
To treat dysentery used skin of 2 mangosteen fruit, washed and cut into pieces, boiled in 4 cups of water until the volume of staying 1 / 2, after cold filtered Ialu drink with honey if necessary (2 x daily 3 / 4 cup).
To treat diarrhea used 2 pieces of skin from a ripe mangosteen, washed and cut into pieces, boiled in 3 cups water to stay 1/2nya volume, after cold filtered and then taken with honey as necessary (2 x daily 3 / 4 cup).
To treat skin sores use of 2 mangosteen fruit, washed and cut into pieces, boiled in 3 cups of water until the volume of staying 1 / 2, after the cold filtered to rinse and continue drinking (3-6 times a day 2 tablespoons).
Rind extract petroleum ether-soluble alkaloid found 2. Bark, fruit peel and dried latex of Garcinia mangostana contain yellow pigment derived from the two metabolites of ß-mangostin and mangostin which were isolated. Mangostin is a major component, while ß-mangostin is a minor constituent. Found a new metabolite of 1,3,6,7-di-tetrahidroksi -2.8 (3-methyl-2butenil) xanton named a-mangostanin from Garcinia mangostana rind.